Cases reported "Pneumonia"

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1/7. A case of "hot tub lung" due to mycobacterium avium complex in an immunocompetent host.

    Pulmonary disease due to mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) typically occurs in patients with impaired cellular immunity or chronic lung disease. Recently, there has been an increase in the number of reports of pulmonary disease caused by MAC occurring in otherwise healthy individuals, including those reporting recent hot tub use. It is not clear if this respiratory illness represents a true infectious process or a hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We report a case of diffuse pulmonary disease caused by MAC in an immunocompetent individual after hot tub use. The patient's clinical course, transbronchial lung biopsy results, and microbiologic examination findings all pointed to a hypersensitivity reaction due to MAC. With avoidance of the hot tub, and no pharmacological treatment, the patient had complete resolution within 2 months. In light of the number of new cases of "hot tub lung" in otherwise healthy individuals, clinicians should advise their patients of the potential risk associated with hot tub use.
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ranking = 1
keywords = avium
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2/7. rhodococcus equi cavitary pneumonia in hiv-infected patients: an unsuspected opportunistic pathogen.

    Two patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and with no previous acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining conditions developed cavitary pneumonia and pleural disease caused by rhodococcus equi. R. equi was isolated from these patients' sputum and lung biopsy specimens, respectively, but the microorganism was initially considered to be a contaminant (patient 1) or misidentified as a nontuberculous mycobacterium (patient 2). The R. equi infection was fatal in one patient, who died after 4 months without specific antimicrobial therapy; the second patient was unresponsive to combination therapy with various antimicrobial agents. R. equi may cause life-threatening infections in hiv-infected patients. microbiology laboratories should be cognizant of the need to exclude R. equi as a cause of infection in highly immunosuppressed patients.
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ranking = 0.93256740011089
keywords = mycobacterium
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3/7. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis associated with mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection.

    A variety of possible associations between infection and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis have been reported. We describe a 75-year-old woman who presented with chronic nonproductive cough, migratory polyarthralgias, and microscopic hematuria. She had an elevated perinuclear ANCA and antimyeloperoxidase antibody. She had a positive PPD test and a cavitary lesion in the right upper lung lobe; biopsy of the lung lesion showed granulomatous vasculitis, but the culture grew Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAI). There are clinical and histiologic similarities between ANCA vasculitis and pulmonary MAI infection. Treatment of vasculitis with immunosuppressive agents could be detrimental in patients with MAI infection. Thus, when ANCA associated vasculitis is considered, mycobacterium infection should be excluded before starting immunosuppressive therapy.
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ranking = 24.827199098282
keywords = mycobacterium avium, mycobacterium, avium
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4/7. High-resolution computed tomography of 'hot tub' pneumonitis.

    A case of pneumonitis following exposure to Mycobacterium avium intracellulare in an indoor home spa (hot tub) is presented. The patient complained of recurrent dyspnoea and wheezing. High-resolution CT showed centrilobular ground-glass nodules. Pathological correlation showed interstitial and bronchiolocentric granulomata. biopsy cultures grew M. avium intracellulare. The patient condition improved following cessation of hot tub use.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = avium
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5/7. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infections after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in children.

    Serious infections caused by the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) complex have been increasingly recognized in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients are prone to infections caused by a wide spectrum of organisms. However, infection with MAI has been reported only once in an allogeneic bone marrow transplant setting. We describe two allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID) in whom MAI infections occurred. Thus, MAI must be added to the list of infectious pathogens that can infect allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients. Aggressive multidrug antituberculosis therapy may be of benefit in such patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = avium
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6/7. bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia in a patient with AIDS.

    A 35-year-old homosexual man who had a remote history of cocaine abuse presented to the hospital with fever, chills, drenching night sweats, and progressive dyspnea of 3 months' duration. His condition had been diagnosed as AIDS 1 1/2 years before presentation. Multiple blood cultures and serological tests failed to yield an infective etiology. bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy, both performed twice, also failed to reveal an etiology. Empirical treatment for infection with the mycobacterium avium complex yielded no response; empirical treatment, based on abnormalities revealed by gallium scanning, for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia led to some clinical improvement. Because of rapid respiratory deterioration at the end of this treatment course, a thoracoscopic lung biopsy was performed; this procedure demonstrated classic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in a rapid salutary response. It is important to aggressively pursue a definitive diagnosis for selected patients with a nonidentifiable infectious cause so that patients receive the correct treatment.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = avium
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7/7. Mycobacterium conspicuum sp. nov., a new species isolated from patients with disseminated infections.

    A new type of slowly growing, nonphotochromogenic mycobacterium was recovered from two patients with disseminated disease. The growth characteristics, acid fastness, acids were consistent with those for Mycobacterium species. The results of biochemical investigations, lipid analyses, and comparative 16S rRNA sequencing showed that these isolates represent a new slowly growing Mycobacterium species which is named Mycobacterium conspicuum.
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ranking = 0.93256740011089
keywords = mycobacterium
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