Cases reported "Pneumoperitoneum"

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1/7. Postcoital vaginal laceration in a patient presenting with signs of small bowel perforation: report of a case.

    Postcoital vaginal rupture or tear is a well-known entity to the gynecologist, albeit unusual; however, such cases are rarely encountered by the general surgeon. The index case is reported to highlight the rare situation wherein a middle-aged woman underwent laparotomy for a suspected small bowel perforation, which revealed a vaginal tear as the cause of pneumoperitoneum. This case emphasizes the importance of taking a gynecological history and performing a gynecological examination when the clinical diagnosis is uncertain.
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keywords = gynecologic
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2/7. pneumoperitoneum after rough sexual intercourse.

    Our objective is to report on a case of nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum and review the mechanism/gynecologic causes of such. We present a case report and review of the literature based on a medline search using the keywords pneumoperitoneum and nonsurgical. Radiographic evidence of free intraperitoneal air suggests hollow viscus rupture and usually warrants urgent surgical management. Findings of diffuse rebound tenderness and guarding solidify the decision for urgent surgical exploration. We present a case of a patient who presented with all of the above findings that subsequently underwent a negative laparotomy. On the day after surgery she admitted to having had rough sexual intercourse 3 days before presentation. Nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum has a number of unusual causes. Intra-abdominal, thoracic, gynecologic, iatrogenic, and miscellaneous etiologies are encountered. It was determined that the pneumoperitoneum in this case was secondary to rough sexual intercourse. We concluded that pneumoperitoneum secondary to nonsurgical causes represents a diagnostic dilemma. In the patient with free intraperitoneal air on plain X-ray one should be suspicious of less common nonsurgical etiologies. The majority of patients will require laparotomy. Thorough sexual and gynecologic/obstetrical history is a valuable adjunct in identifying the patient who does not.
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keywords = gynecologic
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3/7. pneumoperitoneum without perforation of the gastrointestinal tract.

    pneumoperitoneum (PP) is usually the result of perforation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with associated peritonitis. However, other rare causes, including spontaneous PP incidental to intrathoracic, intra-abdominal, gynecologic, and miscellaneous other origins not associated with a perforated GI tract have been described in the literature. Six cases of PP without any perforated GI tract are reported. Three patients with generalized peritonitis underwent exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy when clinical examinations suggested an acute abdomen. At surgical procedure, perforated pyometra, perforated liver abscess and a ruptured necrotic lesion of a liver metastasis were documented in these patients, respectively. We also saw 3 PP patients not associated with peritonitis. Two patients with PP caused by pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis were encountered, 1 was managed conservatively and the other received diagnostic laparoscopy. A patient in whom pneumomediastinum and pneumoretroperitoneum were accompanied by PP caused by an alveolar rupture based on decreased pulmonary compliance due to malnutrition was managed conservatively. The history of the patient and knowledge of the less frequent causes of PP can possibly contribute towards refraining from exploratory laparotomy in the absence of peritonitis.
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keywords = gynecologic
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4/7. Computed tomography features of spontaneously perforated pyometra: a case report.

    Spontaneous perforation of pyometra is an extremely rare emergent gynecologic disease. We report a 73-year-old woman with a spontaneously perforated pyometra presenting with acute abdomen in the emergency department. A dedicated computed tomography examination of the abdominal and pelvic regions revealed the diagnosis. The patient recovered well after surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.
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keywords = gynecologic
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5/7. Spontaneous pneumoperitoneum. A surgical dilemma.

    pneumoperitoneum is usually the result of hollow viscus perforation with associated peritonitis. Nonsurgical spontaneous pneumoperitoneum incidental to intrathoracic, intra-abdominal, gynecologic, iatrogenic, and other miscellaneous causes not associated with perforated viscus have been documented in the literature. Seven cases of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum admitted over 3-year period to Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, georgia are reported. Six patients with pneumoperitoneum underwent exploratory laparotomy when clinical examination suggested an acute abdomen; no intra-abdominal pathology was documented in any of these patients. A seventh patient, on ventilatory support, was managed conservatively after performing a diagnostic peritoneal lavage that was negative. There were no cases of radiographically misdiagnosed pneumoperitoneum. pneumoperitoneum, preceded by a reasonable incidental cause in a patient with a adequate abdominal examination, may warrant continued observation thus avoiding an unnecessary laparotomy.
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keywords = gynecologic
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6/7. pneumoperitoneum and an acute abdominal condition caused by spontaneous perforation of a pyometra in an elderly woman: a case report.

    pyometra, a collection of purulent material in the uterus, is an uncommon gynecologic entity. Spontaneous perforation of the uterus is an infrequent complication of pyometra, most often the result of malignant conditions in the uterus. We report the case of an elderly woman who had an acute abdominal condition and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured pyometra resulting from a degenerative and infected leiomyoma. Although uterine disease is a rare cause of an acute abdominal condition and pneumoperitoneum in the elderly, a perforated pyometra must be considered in the differential diagnosis.
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keywords = gynecologic
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7/7. Nonsurgical causes of pneumoperitoneum.

    The radiographic manifestation of free air in the peritoneal cavity suggests serious intra-abdominal disease and the need for urgent surgical management. Yet, about 10% of all cases of pneumoperitoneum are caused by physiologic processes that do not require surgical management. We retrospectively reviewed cases of nonsurgical causes of pneumoperitoneum at the 2 teaching hospitals of a university medical center between January 1990 and December 1995. Successful management by observation and supportive care without surgical intervention was defined as the diagnostic feature of nonperforation. Failure of a laparotomy to delineate a surgical cause or to result in a reparative procedure is congruent with a nonsurgical cause of pneumoperitoneum. During this period, 8 patients (6 men and 2 women; mean age, 61 years) were identified with nonsurgical causes of pneumoperitoneum. Two patients underwent negative laparotomy, and the other 6 were successfully managed nonoperatively and discharged from the hospital. In 6 patients, a cause of the pneumoperitoneum was identified. The causes may be grouped under the following categories: postoperatively retained air, thoracic, abdominal, gynecologic, and idiopathic. In our review of the literature, 61 of 139 reported cases underwent surgical treatment without evidence of perforated viscus. To avoid unnecessary surgical procedures, both primary medicine physicians and surgeons need to recognize nonsurgical causes of pneumoperitoneum. Conservative management is warranted in the absence of symptoms and signs of peritonitis.
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keywords = gynecologic
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