Cases reported "Pneumothorax"

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1/17. CT imaging of pulmonary lobar interstitial emphysema in a spontaneous breathing preterm infant.

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a well-recognized severe complication of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). However, its occurrence under spontaneous breathing conditions has been described rarely. We present a case of PIE of the left upper lung lobe in an extremely low birth weight infant. Recurrent episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed by histopathology. Plain chest X-ray did not show typical signs of PIE, whereas extra-alveolar air accumulation could be visualized by helical computed tomography (CT)-scan. We stress the role of predispositional factors increasing the risk of PIE development in spontaneous breathing preterm infants.
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2/17. Ventilator auto-triggering in a patient with tuberculous bronchopleural fistula.

    We report a case of ventilator auto-triggering resulting from tuberculous bronchopleural fistula being managed with chest tube suction. Early recognition of bronchopleural fistula-related auto-triggering is extremely important. Auto-triggering can lead to serious adverse effects, including severe hyperventilation and inappropriate escalation of sedatives and/or neuromuscular blockers (administered to reduce spontaneous breathing efforts). Auto-triggering was confirmed in our patient when tachypnea persisted despite pharmacologic neuromuscular paralysis. Auto-triggering can be reduced or eliminated by decreasing ventilator trigger sensitivity or by decreasing the air leak flow by reducing the degree of chest tube suction.
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3/17. A giant retrosternal goiter with severe tracheal compression and superior vena cava syndrome: an operative experience.

    The peculiarities in the operation of a giant retrosternal goiter with severe tracheal compression and superior vena cava syndrome are highlighted in this report of a 53 year-old female with a large anterior neck swelling interfering with normal breathing and swallowing. From the initiation of the neck incision, mobilization of the gland and performing the subtotal excisions there was troublesome bleeding. Pneumothorax resulting after delivery of the massive retrosternal portion was managed with an underwater-seal drainage tube.
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4/17. hemopneumothorax in a COPD patient treated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation: the risk of attendant anticoagulation.

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) modalities have been proven to be effective in the setting of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Reported complications include pneumothorax, increased work of breathing, gastric distension and air embolism. This case demonstrates that patients with severe COPD on anticoagulant therapy are potentially at risk for the serious complication of combined lung barotrauma and hemorrhage while on acute NIPPV therapy. This is the first reported case of hemopneumothorax complicating NIPPV therapy.
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5/17. Case report of tension pneumothorax related to acupuncture.

    Although recent prospective studies came to the conclusion that the incidence of adverse events following acupuncture can be classified as minimal, many cases of acupuncture-related pneumothorax have been published over the years, among them some cases of tension pneumothorax. In this case, a slender woman received acupuncture from a fully trained medical acupuncturist including needling of the points LU1 in the subacromial region and BL13, which is a paravertebral point at the level of the spinous process of the third thoracic vertebra. During the final treatment, she experienced difficulties in breathing and pain in the left chest. On x ray examination a tension pneumothorax was diagnosed. Even though pneumothorax is the most frequently reported serious complication related to acupuncture, it is not an inevitable complication of acupuncture, and in most cases involves negligence from inadequate consideration of basic anatomy.
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6/17. Kapalabhati pranayama: breath of fire or cause of pneumothorax? A case report.

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is the most common cause of pneumothorax. We report a case of a 29-year-old healthy woman who presented to the emergency department with a spontaneous pneumothorax caused by a yoga breathing technique called Kapalabhati pranayama, or breath of fire. yoga breathing exercises are commonly practiced, and a limited number of studies have shown various physiologic benefits of yoga breathing. This is the only known report of spontaneous pneumothorax caused by pranayama, but some other rare causes are noted. This case should illustrate that adverse side effects can occur when one pushes the body to physiologic extremes.
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7/17. Spontaneous pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a term unventilated infant.

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a form of air block most frequently seen in ventilated preterm infants with severe lung disease; it is rarely reported in spontaneously breathing term infants. We report on an infant previously diagnosed with laryngomalacia and congestive heart failure and with evidence of antenatal stroke before the onset of pulmonary disease. He presented at 6 weeks of age with spontaneous pneumothorax. Focal cystic changes were seen on imaging studies of the lungs. There was no prior history of mechanical ventilation. Prior chest x-rays did not show cystic changes. He subsequently underwent resection of the affected lung areas. Pathologic examination revealed persistent PIE with cystic expansion, pleural blebs, and reactive pleuritis, as well as subpleural air-space enlargement. The patient did well postoperatively and was discharged home without further problems. This case demonstrates that PIE can occur in an infant without any history of mechanical ventilation, suggesting the need for a high index of suspicion for PIE, even in nonventilated and spontaneously breathing term neonates. PIE should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic lung lesions in all young infants.
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8/17. Bilateral tension pneumothorax due to a defective anesthesia breathing circuit filter.

    A 25-year-old healthy patient developed bilateral tension pneumothorax during general endotracheal anesthesia due to a defective anesthesia breathing circuit filter. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of the pneumothorax was facilitated by the use of capnography and pulse oximetry. The manufacturing process of the breathing circuit and filter that made this accident possible has since been corrected by the manufacturer. Anesthesiologists must be alert to the possibility of such accidents with any breathing system using bacterial filters.
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9/17. Pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema following the measurement of maximal expiratory pressure in a normal subject.

    Mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema have been reported as a consequence of deliberate manipulations of the breathing pattern producing a Valsalva-like maneuver in healthy subjects. We present a case of pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema occurring in a normal volunteer after repeated measurements of the PEmax.
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10/17. Inherent unsaturation in the treatment of pneumothorax at depth.

    In discussing the treatment of pneumothorax under pressure, standard diving medicine publications recommend only the insertion of a chest tube before decompression. However, there are marked difficulties in performing surgery in a typical offshore commercial chamber, and present knowledge of chamber bacteriology indicates there is important risk of serious infection. By contrast, the venerable principle of inherent unsaturation and known experimental data permit the rational and safe use of pressure and oxygen breathing to resolve this problem. This should be the treatment of first preference for, even if it is not effective, no other options are closed off. Two representative cases are presented.
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