Cases reported "Pneumothorax"

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1/34. pneumothorax due to electrical burn.

    A 25-year-old male developed early as well as delayed (15 days post burn) pneumothorax of right side following high voltage, 1100 KV, electrical burn of the right side of the chest wall. diagnosis was established by clinical examination and chest x-ray. Intercostal tube drainage with underwater seal relieved the patient of pneumothorax.
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2/34. Use of postoperative chest x-ray after elective adult tracheotomy.

    Surgeons have been creating tracheotomies since at least 124 AD, when first reported by Asclepiades (Price HC, Postma DS. ear nose Throat J 1983;62:44-59). Intraoperative and postoperative complications specifically associated with this procedure have been well established. The incidence of pneumothorax ranges from 0% to 17%, depending on the age group studied. To evaluate this complication, it is generally accepted that a postoperative chest film should routinely be obtained after a tracheotomy in adult patients. In adult nonemergent tracheotomies, the routine use of a postoperative chest film has a low yield for detecting a pneumothorax in patients without clinical findings of pneumothorax. To evaluate the use of postoperative chest x-ray in adult tracheotomy patients, a retrospective review of tracheotomies performed at the boston Medical Center from January 1994 to June 1996 was undertaken. Data examined consisted of age, sex, surgical indication, urgency, operating service, intraoperative and postoperative complications, difficulty of procedure, anesthetic technique, findings on postoperative chest film, signs and symptoms of pneumothorax, and specific treatment of pneumothorax if present. In total, 250 patients were identified. The main indication for tracheostomy in this study was ventilator dependence, accounting for 77% of the procedures. A complication rate of 11.6% was encountered, with no deaths. postoperative hemorrhage was the most common complication (3.6%). pneumothorax was documented by chest x-ray in 3 (1.2%) patients, 1 of whom had bilateral pneumothoraces. The most common symptom of a pneumothorax was tachycardia, with 8.8% of the patients exhibiting at least 1 episode. Of the 3 cases of pneumothorax in this study, only 1 was clinically relevant and required treatment. Furthermore, the clinical signs and symptoms in this patient clearly supported the diagnosis of pneumothorax before a postoperative chest film was obtained. Thus postoperative chest radiographs did not change the treatment or outcome of any of the patients undergoing a tracheotomy. This suggests that postoperative chest x-ray after adult tracheotomy is not required in routine cases. Chest radiographs should be obtained after emergent procedures, after difficult procedures, or in patients exhibiting signs or symptoms of pneumothorax.
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keywords = x-ray
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3/34. pneumothorax after diagnostic laparoscopy.

    A case of laparoscopic-induced asymptomatic pneumothorax (PTX) is presented. Six hours postoperation, a chest x-ray revealed no evidence of PTX. The patient subsequently had a routine postoperation course. As the number of laparoscopic cases performed each year continues to rise, the surgeon must remain cognizant of all possible major and minor complications to keep laparoscopic surgery safe and effective.
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keywords = x-ray
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4/34. percussion--a new way to diagnose a pneumothorax.

    We describe a new clinical sign in a case series of three patients who developed pneumothoraces during mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. All three patients were in the supine position. Two patients had x-rays that were inconclusive before insertion of chest drains and the third had a pneumothorax diagnosed on clinical findings alone. On each occasion we were able to diagnose pneumothorax using sternal percussion and simultaneous auscultation. The method relies on percussion of the sternum while simultaneously ausculating the anterior (superior) chest on the side of the suspected pneumothorax. The stethoscope is then placed on the other side of the chest. The percussion sound on the affected side has an exaggerated, resonant and booming quality. The percussion note is exaggerated partly because a stethoscope is used and partly because, in the supine patient, air localizes upwards to the anterior thorax.
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keywords = x-ray
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5/34. Catamenial pneumothorax: chest X-ray sign and thoracoscopic treatment.

    We report the case of a 25-year-old woman with recurrent right-sided catamenial pneumothorax. At thoracoscopy, the diaphragm presented several violet implants with holes. The presence of diaphragmatic endometrial implants was confirmed at pathologic examination. Re-review of the preoperative chest x-ray film showed 8 x 5 and 1 x 1 mm bubbles at the level of the right diaphragm associated with the homolateral pneumothorax, thus suggesting that passage of air from the genital tract through the diaphragm was responsible for the pneumothorax. This may further clarify the pathogenesis of catamenial pneumothorax which remains controversial in the literature.
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6/34. Bronchial complication of a closed-tube endotracheal suction catheter.

    Iatrogenic bronchial complications in intubated premature infants are rare. The authors present one case of rupture of a closed-tube endotracheal suction catheter. Clinical presentation was a persistent pneumothorax that required chest tube placement in several days. A foreign body was confirmed in x-ray and computed tomography (CT) scan. Flexible bronchoscopy showed a piece of catheter in the left bronchus and using a rigid bronchoscope was possible to remove. No perforation was found. There are a few reports in the literature of iatrogenic bronchial complication in premature infants caused by closed-tube endotracheal suctioning catheters. Endobronchial rupture of this catheter has never been reported.
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7/34. Extraperitoneal endometriosis with catamenial pneumothoraces: a review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE: To present a case of recurrent catamenial pneumothorax and diaphragmatic endometriosis that was managed thoracoscopically. A review of the literature is also presented. methods: A-28-year-old woman presented with bloody stools, chronic constipation, and chest pain. A review of systems was positive for monthly chest pain associated with her menses. A preoperative chest x-ray revealed a right pneumothorax. colonoscopy revealed biopsy proven endometriosis of the sigmoid colon. A pelvic computed tomography scan revealed bilateral complex, cystic and solid adenexal lesions. RESULTS: A right thoracoscopy was performed. A lesion on the right hemidiaphragm was excised and confirmed to be endometriosis. A wedge section of lung tissue containing a bleb was resected and also contained endometriosis. Three months later, the patient underwent laparoscopic excision of her pelvic endometriosis, including a low anterior rectal resection. Five months later, she presented again with right-sided chest pain. A thoracoscopic right total pleurectomy was performed for recurrent pneumothorax. CONCLUSION: Pullmonary endometriosis may present as chest pain, shortness of breath, or hemoptysis associated with menstrual cycles. This case emphasizes the importance of a careful review of systems in patients with known endometriosis. Management now includes an endoscopic alternative and all of its known benefits.
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keywords = x-ray
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8/34. Surgical emphysema: a rare presentation of foreign body inhalation.

    An 11-year-old girl with an almond lodging in the tracheobronchial tree is described. She presented with an uncommon symptom of subcutaneous emphysema The x-ray revealed left-sided pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Intercostal drain was inserted, but she developed respiratory failure and was ventilated. After initial stabilization for 60 hours, she deteriorated again and her x-ray revealed right-sided collapse. After removal of the foreign body, she was discharged but presented again with stridor necessitating tracheostomy. tracheal stenosis was found and required end-to-end anastomosis. The authors feel that, while foreign bodies are uncommon in this age group with emphysema as a rarer manifestation, this cause should be kept in mind, even in the absence of forthcoming history. A high index of suspicion for tracheobronchial foreign body is required in atypical presentations of acute pediatric respiratory distress.
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keywords = x-ray
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9/34. Failure of buserelin-induced medical castration to control pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis in two patients.

    Two women, aged 44 and 29 years, respectively, were admitted to the hospital in early 1987 for recurrent pneumothorax, dyspnea and a diffuse reticulonodular pattern evidenced on the chest x-ray film. lung biopsy confirmed LAM in both patients. Both were treated sequentially with medroxyprogesterone and a LHRH agonist (buserelin) to achieve reversible medical castration. Neither subjective nor objective improvement was noted after 13 and 5 months, respectively, of buserelin therapy (900 micrograms/day, nasal spray) despite an effective suppression of the pituitary-gonadal axis. medroxyprogesterone also was ineffective. buserelin thus failed to control pulmonary LAM in these two patients, in spite of effective medical castration.
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10/34. diagnosis of pneumothorax by ultrasound immediately after ultrasonically guided aspiration biopsy.

    We report two cases of pneumothorax detected by echographic examination immediately after ultrasonically guided aspiration biopsy and confirmed by chest x-ray film. The pneumothorax was characterized by the disappearance of the lung tumor. In the real-time image, the respiratory excursions of the visceral pleura also disappeared.
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