Cases reported "Poisoning"

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11/88. High-flux hemodialysis--an effective alternative to hemoperfusion in the treatment of carbamazepine intoxication.

    carbamazepine intoxication is associated with seizures, coma, arrhythmias and death. In acute intoxication, charcoal hemoperfusion is employed for removal of the drug. This can be associated with thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, hypothermia and hypocalcemia. Alternatively, we used high-efficiency hemodialysis with a batch dialysis system (Genius), lowering not only serum levels of carbamazepine but removing a considerable amount of the drug as measured in the dialysate. This treatment regimen was compared to treatment by hemoperfusion. A 3.5-hour high-flux hemodialysis was as effective as a 2-hour hemoperfusion. We conclude that high-efficiency hemodialysis is a safe and effective alternative for treating life-threatening carbamazepine intoxication.
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12/88. Prolonged apnea following succinylcholine administration in undiagnosed acute organophosphate poisoning.

    organophosphates (OP) are irreversibly bound to cholinesterase, causing deactivation of acetylcholinesterase. As a result of inhibition of plasma cholinesterase, increased sensitivity to drugs hydrolyzed by this enzyme can occur, e.g. succinylcholine and mivacurium. A case of more prolonged succinylcholine-induced paralysis in a child with undiagnosed acute OP insecticide poisoning is presented. A 7-h period of apnea and paralysis after administration of succinylcholine was attributed to the decreased rate of succinylcholine metabolism resulting from inhibition of pseudocholinesterase by the insecticide. In seven previously reported cases of prolonged succinycholine apnea after OP poisoning, exposure to insecticide was in chronic or subacute form without any obvious symptoms, and the duration of apnea did not extend up to 4 h, whereas in our case with acute, severe poisoning, succinylcholine led to more prolonged muscle paralysis. In the anesthetic management of patients with acute OP poisoning, succinylcholine should be avoided.
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13/88. Fatal intentional poisoning cases admitted to the University hospitals of Leuven, belgium from 1993 to 1996.

    Between January 1993 and July 1996, a total of 2827 intentional cases of poisoning were registered in the University hospitals of Leuven, belgium. Ten of these cases were fatal. This study was set up to evaluate the substances involved, the circumstances, the features and the characteristics of the patients who died due to intentional poisoning. The male to female ratio of these fatal cases was 9 : 1. The median age was 43 years. Two groups of substances were revealed to be associated with fatal outcome. The first group consisted of chemicals (seven lethal cases): cholinesterase inhibitors ( =3), methanol ( =2) and paraquat ( =2). The second group consisted of benzodiazepines (three lethal cases). In the cases of poisoning with chemicals, death was directly related to product toxicity and the severity of the poisoning, whilst with benzodiazepines, which are considered to be relatively safe drugs even when taken in overdose, there was a clear relationship between a fatal outcome and a delay between ingestion and medical support. Product toxicity, complications and a delay in medical support may be considered as predictors for the effectiveness and efficacy of treatment and may influence which medical treatments need to be administered.
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14/88. A case of levetiracetam (Keppra) poisoning with clinical and toxicokinetic data.

    BACKGROUND: Levetiracetam (Keppra) is a new anticonvulsant used to treat partial complex seizures that is also being investigated for its mood-stabilizing properties. Although its precise mechanism of action is unknown, levetiracetam does not appear to directly interact with the GABA system. We report the first intentional overdose with levetiracetam including clinical effects and serial serum concentrations. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old woman reportedly ingested 60 (500 mg) tablets of levetiracetam that she used as a mood-stabilizing medication for bipolar disorder. She had no other prescription medications available and no other medical history. She vomited 4 hours after ingestion and presented to the ED 2 hours later. In the ED, the patient was obtunded and was intubated secondary to respiratory depression. Her only other significant clinical finding was diminished deep tendon reflexes. serum ethanol, lithium, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproic acid levels were all negative as was a subsequent urine screen for drugs of abuse. Her levetiracetam serum concentration was 400 microg/mL at 6 hours, 72 microg/mL at 18 hours, and 60 microg/mL at 20.5 hours (therapeutic serum concentration is 10-37 microg/mL). The elimination half-life was calculated to be 5.14 hours. She was extubated the next hospital day and recovered without sequelae. CONCLUSION: In overdose, levetiracetam is sedating and causes respiratory depression, however, recovery is rapid with supportive care. This is the first reported case of levetiracetam overdose; serial serum concentrations suggest first-order elimination even at concentrations 10-40 fold higher than therapeutic.
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15/88. Papers and originals.

    Six cases of persistent non-accidental poisoning of children by their parents are reported. Certain features may draw attention to the diagnosis, particularly bizarre symptoms and signs with no apparent pathological explanation, and toxicological analysis should be carried out to obtain rapid confirmation of the diagnosis. The underlying disorder may include marital conflict, overinvolvement between parent and child, or drug abuse in the parents. A suggested plan of action for managing this problem is outlined.
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16/88. dancing with "death": p-methoxyamphetamine overdose and its acute management.

    Para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) is a substituted synthetic amphetamine used in the recreational drug scene. It is unusual because of the high incidence of significant morbidity and mortality in overdose. We report a case of PMA overdose in south australia, and review our experience with the drug. We review the literature on PMA overdose and offer suggestions on the management of overdose with this dangerous drug.
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17/88. Iatrogenic pleuropulmonary charcoal instillation in a teenager.

    Activated charcoal given through a nasogastric tube is a standard intervention for many types of toxic ingestions in the emergency department. This case study describes a teenage girl whose multidrug overdose was complicated by accidental charcoal instillation into her left lung and pleural space through a misplaced nasogastric tube. The ensuing empyema did not respond to antibiotic therapy alone, probably due to the inherent properties of charcoal, and required a chest tube placement with continuous irrigation. Unlike previously reported cases, this patient did well clinically, without long-term morbidity.
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keywords = drug overdose, drug
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18/88. Pulmonary toxic effects of continuous desferrioxamine administration in acute iron poisoning.

    The drug of choice for the treatment of iron poisoning is desferrioxamine, though the best route of administration, dose, and duration of treatment are unclear. We report fatal lung injury in four patients who were treated with continuous intravenous infusions. The patients, aged 19-26 years, had received desferrioxamine infusions of 15 mg/kg per h for 65-92 h. Respiratory distress developed after 32-72 h. The patients met clinical, physiological, and necropsy criteria for the diagnosis of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); none had any of the known risk factors for the development of this disorder. We reviewed the records of forty-three iron-poisoned patients treated with desferrioxamine infusions. No patient treated for less than 24 h had pulmonary complications; however, of the fourteen treated for longer than 24 h, four were the patients with ARDS and four others had pulmonary oedema of other causes. We suggest that the pulmonary complications are caused by continuous infusion of desferrioxamine and that the ARDS in these patient was a consequence of free-radical generation. We recommend that desferrioxamine infusion should not be administered for longer than 24 h.
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19/88. ondansetron to prevent emesis following N-acetylcysteine for acetaminophen intoxication.

    We present a 17-year-old girl who developed persistent vomiting following acetaminophen overdose. Because of the amount of drug ingested (300 mg/kg acetaminophen) and the four-hour postingestion level (256 micrograms/ml), administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was indicated. Emesis occurred immediately following the first three doses of NAC despite administering the drug by continuous nasogastric drip over one hour. Prior to the next attempt, ondansetron (0.15 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as an antiemetic. Thirty minutes following ondansetron, NAC was tolerated without further emesis. Although several antiemetics may have prevented further emesis, we chose ondansetron since, as a serotonin antagonist, it does not cause extrapyramidal side effects or sedation. In patients with potentially toxic drug ingestions, these side effects may be confused with or mask the adverse effects of the ingested drug, thereby interfering with the ongoing evaluation of the patient. Although not previously administered for this indication, ondansetron has several advantages over other antiemetic agents in the setting of an acute drug ingestion.
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20/88. Treatment of a patient with severe digitoxin intoxication by Fab fragments of anti-digitalis antibodies.

    A massive digitoxin (DGTX) intoxication in a 36-year-old man (35 mg DGTX) was treated by prolonged and repeated i.v.-infusions of Fab fragments of anti-digitalis antibodies (FAB). blood and urine samples were collected over a 98 h period for monitoring the efficacy and adequacy of FAB treatment. DGTX concentrations were determined after protein precipitation (release of FAB-bound and protein-bound DGTX) in unprocessed serum and urine samples, and after aliquots of these samples had been dialysed in vitro against DGTX-free buffer (elimination of DGTX not bound to FAB). The difference in DGTX concentration between the unprocessed and dialysed samples was the amount of DGTX bound to plasma proteins and the small fraction of unbound DGTX being relevant for the therapeutic and toxic effects of the drug. Before FAB therapy was started, the total serum DGTX concentration was 535 nmol/l. The first FAB infusion (320 mg) was started 11 h after drug ingestion. Since this amount of FAB was insufficient to bind all DGTX present in the serum, cardiac DGTX toxicity (total AV-block) persisted. During a second FAB infusion (400 mg) the patient reverted to regular AV-conduction. At this time most of the DGTX in serum was FAB-bound. Toxic symptoms (sinus arrest) reappeared twice and were accompanied by increasing amounts of non-antibody-bound DGTX in the serum. Additional application of FAB (2 x 80 mg) resulted in the immediate disappearance of arrhythmia. During FAB-treatment total DGTX serum concentrations and renal DGTX clearance rose, indicating redistribution of drug from tissue to serum and urinary elimination of FAB-bound DGTX, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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