Cases reported "Poisoning"

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1/53. Successful donation and transplantation of multiple organs after fatal poisoning with brodifacoum, a long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Successful organ donation has been reported after death from poisonings with cyanide, carbon monoxide, methanol, benzodiazepines, and tricyclic antidepressants. In this report, we describe a case of multiple organ donation from a previously healthy individual who died from poisoning with the long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide, brodifacoum. methods: Case report and review of the literature. RESULTS: All organs procured from the poisoned donor functioned adequately, and there were no hemorrhagic complications in any of the recipients. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates that brodifacoum poisoning is not an absolute contraindication to organ donation from brain-dead patients who have sustained a fatal ingestion.
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2/53. Fatal poisoning with a new phenylethylamine: 4-methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA).

    There has been much publicity in the United Kingdom regarding a new phenylethylamine-based compound called 4-methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA), also known as para-methylthioamphetamine (p-MTA), MTA or "Flatliner". Chemically, 4-MTA is an amphetamine derivative and is a non-neurotoxic potent serotonin-releasing agent and reversible inhibitor of rat monoamine oxidase-A. Analysis of postmortem blood and urine specimens in a case implicating 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine revealed the presence of 4-MTA at a concentration of 4.6 mg/L in femoral blood and 87.2 mg/l in the urine. The concentration of 4-MTA in perimortem blood was measured at 4.2 mg/L. This is the first reported case of death involving 4-MTA in the United Kingdom and the first case known to involve 4-MTA only.
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3/53. Fomepizole treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning in an infant.

    The enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase metabolizes ingested ethylene glycol (EG) to the toxic compounds glycolic and oxalic acids. Renal failure, acidosis, hypocalcemia, and death may follow. Traditional treatment of EG poisoning may require ethanol, a competitive substrate of alcohol dehydrogenase, and hemodialysis, that removes both EG and its toxic metabolites. A new alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, fomepizole (4-methylpyrazole), was approved in 1997 for patients at least 12 years old with suspected or confirmed EG poisoning. Fomepizole has not been studied adequately in the pediatric population. We present a case of an 8-month-old male infant who drank up to 120 mL of EG and developed acidosis and oxalate crystalluria. He was treated with fomepizole and hemodialysis. Even after the completion of hemodialysis, fomepizole appeared to effectively block the production of EG toxic metabolites and to allow the resolution of acidosis; the patient recovered within 48 hours. This is the first report of fomepizole treatment of EG poisoning in an infant.4-methylpyrazole, fomepizole, poisoning, ethylene glycol, hemodialysis, infant, child, pediatrics.
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4/53. death following cupric sulfate emesis.

    Case history: A 25-year-old woman who had ingested about 20 tablets of diazepam 2.5 mg in a suicide attempt was given cupric sulfate 2.5 g in 1750 mL water as an emetic, but died 3 days later. On autopsy, death was attributed to acute hemolysis and acute renal failure due to copper poisoning. copper concentrations were 5.31 microg/mL in whole blood, 19.0 microg/g in the liver, 8.9 microg/g in the kidney, 1.1 microg/L in the brain, 1.1 microg/g in the gastric wall, 1.5 microg/g in the jejunal wall, 0.3 microg/g in the colon wall, 4.6 microg/g in the gastric contents, and 12.6 microg/g in the intestinal contents (fresh weight). This case and 10 others from the Chinese medical literature provide additional evidence that cupric sulfate is a corrosive poison and contraindicated as an emetic.
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5/53. Changes in concentrations of type IV collagen and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in patients with paraquat poisoning.

    Respiratory failure is one of the major causes of death in patients with paraquat poisoning. In paraquat-poisoned lungs, abnormal extracellular matrix regulation occurs. The aim of the present study is to determine whether serum concentrations of type IV collagen and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) are altered during the course of paraquat poisoning and whether haemoperfusion therapy affects these concentrations. Twenty-one patients were admitted within 3 h after ingestion of paraquat and all patients received direct haemoperfusion therapy. Five out of 21 patients survived and 16 patients died within 28 days. plasma paraquat concentrations in non-survivors (5740 /- 380 microg l(-1)) were not significantly different from those in survivors ( 5920 /- 280 microg l(-1)) before treatment. Haemoperfusion reduced these concentrations in both non-survivors (120 /- 7 microg l(-1)) as well as survivors (136 /- 9 microg l(-1)) on day 5. serum concentrations of type IV collagen and TIMP-1 in survivors showed little change between day 1 (type IV collagen, 90.4 /- 3.6 ng ml(-1); TIMP-1, 172.2 /- 7.0 ng ml(-1)) and day 5 (type IV collagen, 92.6 /- 4.2 ng ml(-1); TIMP-1, 174.2 /- 7.2 ng ml(-1)). In contrast, these concentrations in non-survivors on day 5 (type IV collagen, 143.6 /- 7.8 mg ml(-1); TIMP-1, 246.8 /- 13.6 ng ml(-1)) were significantly higher than those on day 1 (type IV collagen, 88.4 /- 4.2 ng ml(-1), P < 0.01; TIMP-1, 170.6 /- 9.2 ng ml(-1), P < 0.05). These data suggest that serum concentrations of type IV collagen and TIMP-1 may be useful indicators for the development of respiratory failure in patients with paraquat poisoning.
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6/53. The cocaine "body stuffer" syndrome: a fatal case.

    Body stuffer, sometimes called "mini packer", is the definition of someone who admits to or is strongly suspected of ingesting illegal drugs in order to escape detection by authorities, and not for recreational purposes or to transport the drug across borders. cocaine is the drug most commonly involved in the body stuffer syndrome. Reported cases of body stuffer deaths are rare, however a fatality related to the ingestion of a plastic bag containing cocaine is described regarding a 17-year-old dealer. The authors describe how the cocaine body stuffer syndrome differs from the usual body packer. Histological and toxicological findings are examined and discussed for a better definition of this unique syndrome.
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7/53. An autopsy case of poisoning by massive absorption of cresol a short time before death.

    A 65-year-old male patient who was hospitalized with schizophrenia died about 15 min later after ingestion of a large volume of saponated cresol solution in a mental hospital. Fatal levels of free p- and m-cresol in the heart blood were detected at 458.8 and 957.3 microg/ml, respectively, which far exceeded the fatal levels determined previously. The levels in the heart muscle, liver and spleen tissues were also extremely high, and there was 250 ml of cresol-odor-emitting fluid in the stomach. The levels of glucuronic-acid-conjugated p- and m-cresols in the heart blood were 38.2 and 85.6 microg/ml, respectively. Although the high levels of cresols in the heart blood may be due to diffusion from the stomach contents, it is surmised that the essential levels of free and conjugated forms in blood were at least 99 and 240 microg/ml, respectively, considering the results of postmortem examinations and some case reports. It was concluded that about 340 microg/ml of the total cresols was absorbed in a very short period following oral ingestion of saponated cresol solution in this case.
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8/53. Efficacy of long duration resuscitation and magnesium sulphate treatment in amitriptyline poisoning.

    A single dose of cyclic antidepressants leads to death in childhood. Myocardial depression and ventricular arrhythmia are the severe side effects in cyclic antidepressant overdose. A 23-month-old boy was brought to hospital because 36 mg/kg of amitriptyline had been taken. cardiopulmonary resuscitation was applied for 70 minutes due to cardiac and respiratory arrest. Circulation was restored after resuscitative efforts. However, ventricular tachycardia was detected which did not respond to lidocaine, bicarbonate and cardioversion treatment. magnesium sulphate treatment was started and cardiac rhythm normalized. No side effects were observed. The duration of resuscitation should be extended in cases of cardiopulmonary arrest secondary to tricyclic antidepressants intoxication. It should be continued at least for 1 hour. magnesium sulphate was found to be extremely effective in a case of amitriptyline intoxication refractory to treatment.
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9/53. High-flux hemodialysis--an effective alternative to hemoperfusion in the treatment of carbamazepine intoxication.

    carbamazepine intoxication is associated with seizures, coma, arrhythmias and death. In acute intoxication, charcoal hemoperfusion is employed for removal of the drug. This can be associated with thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, hypothermia and hypocalcemia. Alternatively, we used high-efficiency hemodialysis with a batch dialysis system (Genius), lowering not only serum levels of carbamazepine but removing a considerable amount of the drug as measured in the dialysate. This treatment regimen was compared to treatment by hemoperfusion. A 3.5-hour high-flux hemodialysis was as effective as a 2-hour hemoperfusion. We conclude that high-efficiency hemodialysis is a safe and effective alternative for treating life-threatening carbamazepine intoxication.
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10/53. Fatal intentional poisoning cases admitted to the University hospitals of Leuven, belgium from 1993 to 1996.

    Between January 1993 and July 1996, a total of 2827 intentional cases of poisoning were registered in the University hospitals of Leuven, belgium. Ten of these cases were fatal. This study was set up to evaluate the substances involved, the circumstances, the features and the characteristics of the patients who died due to intentional poisoning. The male to female ratio of these fatal cases was 9 : 1. The median age was 43 years. Two groups of substances were revealed to be associated with fatal outcome. The first group consisted of chemicals (seven lethal cases): cholinesterase inhibitors ( =3), methanol ( =2) and paraquat ( =2). The second group consisted of benzodiazepines (three lethal cases). In the cases of poisoning with chemicals, death was directly related to product toxicity and the severity of the poisoning, whilst with benzodiazepines, which are considered to be relatively safe drugs even when taken in overdose, there was a clear relationship between a fatal outcome and a delay between ingestion and medical support. Product toxicity, complications and a delay in medical support may be considered as predictors for the effectiveness and efficacy of treatment and may influence which medical treatments need to be administered.
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