Cases reported "Poliomyelitis"

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1/6. Surgical treatment of poliomyelitic scoliosis.

    Between 1968 and 1973 forty nine patients suffering from poliomyelitic scoliosis were treated surgically at the Rizzoli Institute. They were due to asymmetrical paralysis and contracture in the muscles of the trunk and limbs. Associated pathological conditions were found, such as pelvic obliquity, and vascular and trophic changes due to ganglionic lesions. The differing incidence and combination of these factors gave rise to various clinical types of spinal deformity. The average severity of curve was 39 degrees, the localisation was predominantly central, the average extent was ten vertebrae, and there was a marked predominance of right convexity (twenty nine out of thirty six). The rate of progression was maximum during puberty and almost negligible after bony maturity. It was greater in males and was unfavourably affected by the severity and asymmetrical distribution of the paralysis, by the early appearance of the disease, by high localisation of the deformity, and by the erect posture in patients who were ambulant. The most frequent visceral complications were in the respiratory system (ten patients with a deficit over 50%), followed by cardiac changes. Surgical treatment was adopted in patients with progressive curves over 60 degrees, because of the inevitable deterioration in their general condition and the tendency of the deformity to become fixed. Pre-operative correction by Halo-traction results (52% correction) than Risser plasters (38%). Posterior arthrodesis by Harrington's method was carried out in all the more recent cases (forty four). Post-operative plaster was maintained for eight months and then replaced by an orthopaedic corset. At bony maturity there was an averaged improvement of 35% in the angle of curvature, and an average improvement of 6% in vital capacity. The best corrections were obtained in patients under fourteen (42%), in dorso-lumbar scoliosis (40%) and in patients with curves above 100 degrees (38%). There was an average increase in height of 9.1 cms and a reduction in the gibbus of 3.4 cms. The complications included one traumatic pneumothorax, eight pseudarthroses, and breakage of the distraction rod in two cases resulting in complete relapse of the deformity. In six cases the upper hooks became loos and there were two cases of postoperative staphylococcal infection. In the distally sited curves our present policy is towards combining posterior arthrodesis with Dwyer's anterior interbody fusion.
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keywords = vital capacity, capacity
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2/6. A case of frog breathing.

    Frog breathing (glossopharyngeal breathing) is a useful technique employed to increase ventilation when respiratory muscles are paralysed. It is a technique used by many patients with chronic poliomyelitis, yet many chest physicians and physiotherapists are unfamiliar with this breathing maneuver. Glossopharyngeal breathing coordinates movements of the tongue, cheeks and pharynx to force air from the mouth into the lungs. We report a case of glossopharyngeal breathing, demonstrating a 3 fold increase in vital capacity in a subject with chronic poliomyelitis.
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3/6. mouth intermittent positive pressure ventilation in the management of postpolio respiratory insufficiency.

    The use of mouth intermittent positive pressure ventilation alone or in combination with other noninvasive respiratory techniques as an alternative to tracheostomy in the home management of respirator-dependent postpolio persons was studied in 75 patients. The onset of polio was at an average age of 15 years. At that time, all were dependent on some form of respiratory assistance, most frequently, the iron lung. Fifty-nine percent of them remained respirator-dependent from the onset. Forty-one percent became respirator-dependent at an average of 18 years after onset of polio. overall, they lost an average of 1.9 percent of vital capacity per year. All used mouth intermittent positive pressure ventilation as their predominant mode of respiratory assistance for an average of 14.5 years. Four of them who had no measurable vital capacity used only mouth intermittent positive pressure ventilation 24 hours per day. Of the 66 who had no significant tolerance off 24 hours per day respiratory assistance, only six had tracheostomies. Despite severe physical disability and dependence on artificial ventilation, the majority of these persons have married, have been gainfully employed, and lead useful lives in society.
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keywords = vital capacity, capacity
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4/6. Problems of live virus vaccine-associated poliomyelitis a paralytic case with isolation of all three poliovirus types.

    The case of a 4-month-old girl is described who developed a paralytic polio-like syndrome 3 weeks after oral polio vaccination (OPV). All three poliovirus types could be isolated (9 days after onset of disease polio type 2, and 33 days after onset of disease types 1 and 3, respectively). In order to classify these isolates as Sabin (vaccine)-like (SL) or non-Sabin-like (non-SL), several markers were tested in three laboratories [intratypic serodifferentiation, reproductive capacity at supraoptimal temperature (RTC), Al(OH)3 gel elution assay, and oligonucleotide mapping]. The results of the marker determinations were not uniform, but--summarizing all data--it seems plausible to associate the disease with the OPV. The significance of marker determinations in proving a vaccine-induced poliomyelitis is discussed in the light of this clinical case. Some comments are made on poliovirus vaccination policy in developed countries.
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5/6. Late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy: clinical, virologic, and immunologic studies.

    Seventeen relatively young patients, ages 31-65 years (average, 45) with prior poliomyelitis, who after a number of years of stability had experienced new neuromuscular symptoms, were studied. Seven patients had deterioration of functional capacity and then stabilization without new muscular weakness. The other 10 had late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy (late PPMA ) characterized by focal progressive muscle weakness, wasting, fasciculations, and muscle pains affecting previously spared muscles or muscles previously affected but recovered. Four patients with late PPMA had lymphorrhages or lymphocytic infiltrates in their biopsied muscle; three of three patients had oligoclonal IgG bands in their spinal fluid, and five had variable peripheral T lymphocyte-subset ratios. In one patient with late PPMA , antibodies to poliovirus were specifically elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings indicate that new motor-neuron disease can occur in patients with prior poliomyelitis and that immunopathologic mechanisms may play a role.
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ranking = 0.0027272811415268
keywords = capacity
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6/6. scoliosis and cor pulmonale.

    Twenty patients with cor pulmonale due to scoliosis and associated spine deformities seen at the Twin cities scoliosis Center in the past 20 years have been reviewed. The average age was 37 years. The average scoliosis was 135 degrees and ranged from 90 degrees to 200 degrees. Fifteen patients were placed in halo traction, nine of whom went on to surgical stabilization. Of the nine patients having surgical treatment, five had postpoliomyelitis curves, two had congenital, one had infantile idiopathic, and one had frontometaphyseal dysplasia. The best results were in the postpoliomyelitis group, with an average pretreatment vital capacity of 595 cc and posttreatment vital capacity of 1071 cc; the average PaO2 increased from 55 to 64 mm Hg, and the average PaCO2 decreased from 52 to 43 mm Hg. The only death in the postpoliomyelitis group occurred six years postoperatively. Of the four nonpoliomyelitis patients having surgery, only one survived, the patient with frontometaphyseal dysplasia. The difference between the poliomyelitis and nonpoliomyelitis groups was striking. patients with cor pulmonale due to spine deformity should have careful evaluation and a trial of halo traction. If the vital capacity improves, the PaO2 increases, and the PaCO2 decreases, then surgical stabilization can often be successfully accomplished. If these parameters do not improve in traction, then surgical treatment can be abandoned.
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ranking = 3
keywords = vital capacity, capacity
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