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1/40. Multiple intracranial aneurysms in a patient with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is usually characterized by early onset chronic renal failure due to innumerable dilated collecting ducts. Hepatic fibrosis is an obligate sign. Here, for the first time, we report a 31-year-old female with ARPKD who was diagnosed with symptomatic multiple intracranial aneurysms, a manifestation previously only known to be associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).
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keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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2/40. Pulmonary hypertension in a child with juvenile-type autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    An 11 year-old girl, whose condition was diagnosed as juvenile-type autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) at five years of age, presented with chest pain and dyspnea that had developed suddenly two months previously. Two-dimensional echocardiography, doppler study and cardiac catheterization confirmed pulmonary hypertension. The underlying mechanism of the diagnosis was not defined. Two and a half months after the onset of symptoms, the patient died of pulmonary hypertensive crisis. Careful regular checks of cardiopulmonary status using two-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler should be considered for the early detection of pulmonary hypertension even in an asymptomatic patient with juvenile-type ARPKD.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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3/40. Recurrent bacteremia with enteric pathogens in recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    Eight children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) and recurrent bacteremia with enteric pathogens are described. Typical clinical features of bacterial cholangitis were absent, although in five patients histological and/or microbiological data indicated that the bacteremic episodes originated in the biliary tree. bacteremia with enteric pathogens or recurrent culture-negative febrile illness in a child with ARPKD should raise suspicion of cholangitis, even in the absence of typical clinical findings.
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keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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4/40. Acute vision loss in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) often present with renal insufficiency and hypertension. We present two children with ARPKD and end-stage renal disease who developed anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and vision loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy occurs rarely in children and has never been reported in children with ARPKD or end-stage renal disease. Both of our patients were chronically hypotensive and anemic, which are known risk factors for ischemic optic neuropathy.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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5/40. syndrome of autosomal recessive polycystic kidneys with skeletal and facial anomalies is not linked to the ARPKD gene locus on chromosome 6p.

    We report on two sibs, both males, one born at 37 the other at 24 weeks of gestation, both with a syndrome similar to that seen in three sets of sibs by Gillessen-Kaesbach et al. [1993: Am J Med Genet 45:511-518]. Both propositi had polycystic kidneys and hepatic fibrosis indistinguishable from that seen in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), and skeletal and facial anomalies. Skeletal abnormalities included "butterfly" vertebrae, square shape of pelvis, and brachymelia. The facial anomalies included hypertelorism, epicanthic folds, and anteverted nares. Additional external findings were apparently low-set ears and a short neck. Histopathological examination of the kidneys showed radial orientation and cystic dilatation of the cortical and medullar tubules. The liver showed "congenital hepatic fibrosis." The hepatic findings in the second infant were less severe. Renal abnormalities were limited to focal tubular cystic changes. Linkage analysis with polymorphic markers of the region 6p21.1-p12, flanking the gene locus of ARPKD, showed different haplotypes in the sibs, thus excluding the ARPKD gene locus in this family and indicating genetic heterogeneity.
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ranking = 0.17675938112893
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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6/40. Analysis of chromosome 6p in Spanish families with recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    Several previous reports have suggested that autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is caused by mutations in a single gene (the PKDH1 gene). Linkage analysis showed a positive linkage for polymorphic markers at the short arm of chromosome 6 (6p) in all families. PKHD1 has not been cloned. Recombinants in the critical region would permit the narrowing of the 6p interval containing the PKHD1 gene, thus facilitating the final identification (cloning) of this gene. Our study included 30 Spanish families. Each family consisted of both parents and at least two children, with at least one diagnosed with ARPKD by clinical and pathological parameters. dna was obtained and 6p microsatellite markers were used to establish haplotypes for each family. A positive linkage to chromosome 6p was found for all families. In 2 cases, recombinants in the region containing the PKHD1 gene were found. These families will help narrow the size of the 6p region, facilitating the efforts to position and clone the PKHD1 gene. In conclusion, our analysis of Spanish ARPKD families confirms the lack of linkage heterogeneity. This suggests that mutations at a single locus on chromosome 6p21.1-p12 are responsible for the broad clinical spectrum of variable phenotypes.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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7/40. Prenatally diagnosed autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease: initial postnatal management.

    We report a case of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). A presumptive diagnosis was made after a late-term prenatal ultrasound revealed hypoplastic lungs, massive polycystic kidneys, and oligohydramnios. A full-term baby girl was delivered vaginally. Respiratory distress required intubation. Twelve hours after birth, she underwent bilateral nephrectomy and peritoneal dialysis catheter placement. The average kidney size was 150 g and 9.25 cm. Pathologic examination confirmed ARPKD. peritoneal dialysis was started on the third day of life. The baby had no gross neurologic deficit. At 6 months of age, she was growing well, and the mother was a candidate to be a living-related kidney donor.
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ranking = 0.83837969056446
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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8/40. Urinary basic fibroblast growth factor: a noninvasive marker of progressive cystic renal disease in a child.

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a hereditary condition with an estimated incidence of 1 in 20,000 live births. Various growth factors have been implicated in the causation of this disease. We describe a child with ARPKD whose levels of urinary basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were markedly elevated. The concentrations of bFGF increased further following right nephrectomy, in response to the compensatory growth of the remaining kidney. We hypothesize that measurement of urinary bFGF may be useful as a noninvasive marker to assess progression of cystic renal development.
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ranking = 0.16834878574371
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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9/40. Chronic renal failure and portal hypertension--is portosystemic shunt indicated?

    We report two girls with histories of recessive polycystic kidney disease. Both were on maintenance hemodialysis. They had undergone surgical distal portocaval shunt because of portal hypertension. Later, bilateral nephrectomy was performed, and they presented with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and evolution towards irreversible hepatic coma and death. Portosystemic shunt is the treatment of choice of portal hypertension. The kidney plays a pivotal role in ammonia disposal during portosystemic shunt. Thus, we stress the risk of HE after portosystemic shunt followed by bilateral nephrectomy in patients with end-stage renal failure and suggest that combined liver-kidney transplantation should be considered.
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ranking = 0.17003090482075
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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10/40. Sonographic pattern of recessive polycystic kidney disease in young adults. Differences from the dominant form.

    BACKGROUND: To study the sonographic pattern of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) in early adulthood in order to identify imaging criteria to diagnose this disease and to distinguish between recessive and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in that age group. methods: An abdominal ultrasound was performed on four ARPKD subjects (with a mean age of 20.2) and on 33 ADPKD subjects in early adulthood (29 without renal failure with a mean age of 20.5, and four with renal failure with a mean age of 26.5). Linkage studies with ADPKD and ARPKD markers were compatible with the clinical diagnosis in all cases. RESULTS: The renal sonographic features in ARPKD subjects included multiple small cysts in a normal-sized kidney, increased cortical echogenicity and loss of corticomedullary differentiation. In ADPKD subjects without renal failure, sonographic features included few or multiple cysts of different sizes, in normal-sized kidneys in 22 out of 29 patients (75.8%), normal cortical echogenicity and conserved corticomedullary differentiation, except in patients with nephromegaly. All ADPKD subjects with renal failure had nephromegaly and loss of corticomedullary differentiation. The hepatic sonographic features in ARPKD patients included portal fibrosis and in some cases Caroli's disease, while in ADPKD patients a normal hepatic echostructure was detected in all but one case, in addition to simple hepatic cysts in a few cases. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of the sonographic features of the kidneys and those of the liver may help in the differential diagnosis between ARPKD and ADPKD in early adulthood.
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ranking = 1.0050463572311
keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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