Cases reported "polycystic ovary syndrome"

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11/200. association of metformin and pregnancy in the polycystic ovary syndrome. A report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: infertility is a common manifestation of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Hyperinsulinemia leads to increased ovarian androgen production, resulting in follicular atresia and anovulation. metformin, a medication that improves insulin sensitivity and decreases serum insulin levels, restores menstrual cyclicity and ovulatory function and may improve fertility rates in women with PCOS. We present three consecutive cases from our clinic that support this premise. CASES: Three patients were seen in the reproductive endocrinology clinic with documented PCOS, long-standing infertility and clinically diagnosed insulin resistance. The first patient had hyperandrogenic, insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans syndrome and had been resistant to multiple courses of clomiphene citrate; the second exhibited hypertension, hyperlipidemia and glucose intolerance along with anovulation; and the third presented with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and a desire to conceive. Each patient received metformin, which led to restoration of menstrual cyclicity and conception in all three cases. CONCLUSION: These three patients reflect the heterogeneous nature of PCOS, and treating their underlying insulin resistance with metformin resulted in pregnancy. These findings suggest that metformin may be a useful adjunct for treatment of infertility in patients with PCOS. ( info)

12/200. polycystic ovary syndrome, infertility, familial thrombophilia, familial hypofibrinolysis, recurrent loss of in vitro fertilized embryos, and miscarriage.

    OBJECTIVE: To study reversible determinants of infertility and recurrent loss of transferred embryos after failure of 7 of 10 embryo transfers, 1 live birth, and 2 miscarriages. DESIGN: Measures of thrombophilia, hypofibrinolysis, reproductive hormones, and androgenic steroids before and after metformin therapy. SETTING: Outpatient clinical research center. PATIENT(S): A 32-year-old amenorrheic, infertile woman with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who had 7 of 10 embryo transfers fail, 1 premature live birth, and 2 miscarriages at 8 and 17 weeks. INTERVENTION(S): metformin (2.55 g/d) was given to ameliorate the endocrinopathy of PCOS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Coagulation, insulin, reproductive hormones, and androgenic steroids. RESULT(S): The propositus had thrombophilia (familial protein s deficiency [free protein S 32%; normal >/=65%]). She also had familial hypofibrinolysis with 4G4G polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) gene and high PAI-1 activity (PAI-Fx), 42.5 U/mL, normal <21.1. polycystic ovary syndrome was characterized by amenorrhea, polycystic ovaries, high fasting serum insulin (39 microU/mL, normal <20), androstenedione (763 ng/dL, normal <250), and testosterone (229 ng/dL, normal <83). After she received metformin for 4 months, PAI-Fx normalized (12.4 U/mL), as did insulin (12 microU/mL), androstenedione (185 ng/dL), and testosterone (39 ng/dL); weight fell from 109 to 91.3 kg (16%). CONCLUSION(S): metformin reversed the endocrinopathy of PCOS. Familial thrombophilia and hypofibrinolysis may lead to thrombosis-mediated uteroplacental vascular insufficiency, failure to achieve pregnancy after embryo transfer, and miscarriage. ( info)

13/200. Combined bilateral ectopic and intrauterine pregnancy following ovulation induction with the low-dose step-up protocol in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    A woman with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) developed bilateral tubal and an intrauterine pregnancy following ovulation induction with urinary FSH using the low-dose step-up protocol. After a spontaneous miscarriage she was treated by laparoscopic left salpingectomy and right linear salpingotomy. ( info)

14/200. Extremely high levels of estradiol and testosterone in a case of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hormone and clinical similarities with the phenotype of the alpha estrogen receptor null mice.

    A 19-year-old nulliparous hirsute woman was evaluated for the very high serum levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) measured in an outside laboratory. menarche had occurred at 11 years and was followed by regular menses. We confirmed the high levels of T (9-16 ng/ml, nv 0.2-0.8) and E2 (>1,000 pg/ml, nv 30-120). LH and FSH were consistently high (73-118 mU/l and 18-29 mU/l, respectively; LH/FSH ratio=4.1-4.7) and responsive to iv GnRH (LH baseline=118 mU/I, 30 min=290; FSH baseline=25 mU/l, 30 min=46). The unstimulated values contrasted with those (LH=12, FSH=8 mU/I) measured in the outside laboratory, suggesting antigenically anomalous gonadotropins. 17-OH-progesterone was normal (0.5 ng/ml). After 1 mg dexamethasone, serum cortisol was normally suppressed (24-->0.4 microg/dl), T declined minimally (9-->8.6 ng/ml) and E2 remained high (>1,000 pg/ml). An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and two enlarged ovaries with multiple cysts as in a typical polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were seen. Before the wedge resection of the ovaries, hormones were assayed in the ovary veins (right ovary: T=30 ng/ml, Pg=17 ng/ml, E2=>5,000 pg/ml; left: T=14 ng/ml, Pg=14 ng/ml, E2=>5,000 pg/ml). Histologically, the follicle cysts showed luteinization of the theca interna; there was no evidence for ovary tumor in either ovary. After 21 days of 35 microg ethynyl-E2 2 mg cyproterone acetate (CA), E2=3,000 pg/ml, T=1.4 ng/ml, LH=10.5 mU/l and FSH=4.1 mU/I. After three cycles of the said therapy (but with 50 mg CA in the first 10 days of each cycle), E2 was 1,600 pg/ml, T 1.7 ng/ml, LH 7.1 and FSH 4.6 mU/I. Based on similarities with the phenotype of the alpha estrogen receptor knockout female mice (alphaERKO), one possible explanation for the puzzling clinical and biochemical picture of our patient is resistance of (alphaER to estrogens. This is the first case of PCOS with extremely high E2 and T. Thus, the differential diagnosis of high levels of E2 /- T should include PCOS. ( info)

15/200. Ovarian hyperthecosis in the adolescent patient.

    The endocrine findings in two adolescents with hyperthecosis are compared to those in a patient with an androgenic ovarian tumor. In patients with hyperthecosis, luteinizing hormone values were elevated or in the upper normal range, and plasma testosterone and androstenedione values were increased. Following dexamethasone suppression, testosterone and androstenedione values remained elevated, but after administration of human chorionic gonadotropin, they increased further in only one patient. Baseline 17-ketosteroid values were normal, suppressed with dexamethasone, and stimulated to baseline levels following HCG. The patient with a lipoid cell ovarian tumor had low baseline LH levels, and elevated testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-ketosteroid values. dexamethasone produced little change in urinary or plasma values, but the 17-ketosteroids increased markedly after administration of HCG. The finding of low serum LH values in patients with hirsutism and elevated androgen secretion should alert the clinician to the possibility of a tumor. ( info)

16/200. Perforated duodenal ulcer associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: Case Report.

    ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) remains the most serious medical complication of controlled ovarian stimulation. An unusual case of perforated duodenal ulcer following critical OHSS is presented. A 29 year old nulligravid woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome underwent her first attempt at in-vitro fertilization. She was admitted to the hospital with critical OHSS and subsequently found to have a perforated posterior duodenal ulcer. She underwent exploratory laparotomy, antrectomy and gastrojejunostomy. Pathological analysis of her gastric antrum confirmed chronic gastritis and helicobacter pylori. She required prolonged assisted ventilation, vasopressor support, multiple i.v. antibiotics, blood product replacement and nutritional support. The patient was hospitalized for a total of 47 days and then transferred to a rehabilitation facility for an additional 30 days before being discharged to home. In this critically ill patient with OHSS, severe stress associated with invasive monitoring and multiple medical therapies in the intensive care unit as well as H. pylori infection appear to be the most probable causative factors of her perforated viscus. Prompt recognition of potential complications and proper medical intervention are essential in the management of patients with OHSS. Avoidance strategies are still needed. ( info)

17/200. association of polycystic ovary syndrome with an interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11.

    Several pathways have been implicated in the etiology of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The observation of familial aggregation of PCOS is consistent with a genetic component of this disorder. We report on a 21-year-old woman with menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, elevated serum androgen levels and polycystic ovarian morphology on ultrasonography, meeting the diagnostic criteria of PCOS. A cytogenetic investigation was performed because of a congenital heart defect, craniofacial anomalies in infancy (quadricephaly with protruding forehead, flat nasal bridge, low set ears with attached earlobes, small mouth, high arched palate with submucous palatal cleft, retrognathia), broad neck, motor and speech developmental delay. Chromosomal analysis revealed an unbalanced interstitial deletion of one of the chromosomes 11 [del (11) (q21q23.1)]. Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 11 have been reported in at least 18 patients. Candidate genes for PCOS have not been suspected at this chromosomal location so far. follistatin and CYP11A, the genes with the strongest evidence for linkage with PCOS, are located on chromosomes 5 and 15. In the chromosomal region deleted in our patient a progesterone receptor gene is located in band q22. Lowered progesterone receptor concentration is associated with retardation of endometrial development. A disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, due to a reduction of hypothalamic and pituitary progesterone receptors might be a component in the etiology of PCOS. ( info)

18/200. polycystic ovary syndrome: a connection to insufficient milk supply?

    Despite advances in lactation skills and knowledge, insufficient milk production still continues to mystify mothers and lactation consultants alike. Based on 3 cases with similar threads, a connection is proposed between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insufficient milk supply. Described are the etiology and possible symptoms of PCOS such as amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, persistent acne, ovarian cysts, elevated triglycerides, and adult-onset diabetes, along with possible pathological interference with mammogenesis, lactogenesis, and galactopoiesis. Clinical suggestions include guidelines for screening mothers and careful monitoring of babies at risk. Further research is necessary to confirm the proposed association and to develop therapies with the potential to improve lactation success. ( info)

19/200. Altered autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor in the ovary of a woman with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the tyrosine autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) in the ovary of a woman with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was reduced compared to normal. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Tertiary care medical center. PATIENT(S): One woman with PCOS and one healthy control, both of whom underwent a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. INTERVENTION(S): plasma membrane fraction of ovarian tissue was isolated, and the IR was purified and concentrated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Western blots of the IR, which had been incubated with and without insulin, were prepared. Colorimetric and chemiluminescent methods were used to detect the presence of the IR beta-subunit and IR tyrosine autophosphorylation, respectively. RESULT(S): The presence of the beta-subunit of the IR was identified in both ovarian samples. The degree of insulin-stimulated IR tyrosine autophosphorylation, reflected by the mean ( /-SD) relative optical density of the 95 kd band, was 4.3-fold higher in the normal ovary compared to the PCOS ovary (0.56 /- 0.18 optical density vs. 0.13 /- 0.10 optical density, respectively). CONCLUSION(S): tyrosine autophosphorylation of the IR may be decreased in the ovaries of women with PCOS, similar to the findings in other tissues. The mechanisms through which insulin acts to produce an excess in ovarian androgen production in the face of a decrease in ovarian IR autophosphorylation remain to be determined. ( info)

20/200. Endometrial adenocarcinoma and polycystic ovary syndrome: risk factors, management, and prognosis.

    This report presents the development of endometrial adenocarcinoma after diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in three premenopausal women. Such cases illustrate the increased potential for endometrial hyperplasia and malignancy in the setting of chronic anovulation associated with PCOS and underscore the need for prompt identification and treatment. attention to endometrial thickness (as measured by transvaginal sonogram) and elevated insulin level (as measured by fasting plasma insulin) can improve clinical surveillance of both conditions and preserve reproductive potential for women with PCOS. ( info)
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