Cases reported "Polydactyly"

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1/18. A sporadic case of tetramelic mirror-image polydactyly and unilateral tibial hypoplasia without associated anomalies.

    We report a sporadic case of tetramelic mirror-image polydactyly in combination with unilateral tibial aplasia. No chromosomal or other associated abnormalities were found. The appearance and function of the upper and lower limbs were improved by surgery.
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keywords = tibia
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2/18. Mirror foot.

    Mirror image polydactyly is a rare congenital abnormality that may occur in isolation, or in association with multiple congenital anomalies. A case of unilateral mirror foot with an ipsilateral short, broad tibia is described. The clinical, radiologic, and operative findings are presented, and current theories of embryo-pathogenesis are reviewed.
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3/18. Are triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPTPS) and tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome (THPTTS) identical? A father with TPTPS and his daughter with THPTTS in a Thai family.

    We report on a Thai man who had triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPTPS, MIM *190605) and his daughter who had tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome (THPTTS, MIM *188770). The father had polysyndactyly of triphalangeal thumbs, syndactyly of fingers, duplicated distal phalanx of the left great toe, brachymesophalangy of toes, and the absence of middle phalanges of some toes. He was diagnosed as having TPTPS. His daughter was more severely affected, having complete syndactyly of five-fingered hands in rosebud fashion (Haas-type syndactyly), hypoplastic tibiae, absent patellae, thick and displaced fibulae, preaxial polysyndactyly of triphalangeal toes, and cutaneous syndactyly of some toes, the manifestations being consistent with THPTTS. Having two different syndromes in the same family suggests that they are actually the same disorder. A literature survey showed that there have been several families where THPTTS occurred with TPTPS or Haas-type syndactyly (and/or preaxial polydactyly type 2, PPD2). In addition, all loci for TPTPS, THPTTS, and PPD2 (and/or PPD3) have been assigned to chromosome band 7q36. These findings support our conclusion that TPTPS, PPD2 (and/or PPD3), and Haas-type syndactyly are a single genetic en-tity (THPTTS). We propose to call the condition "tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumbs syndrome." copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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keywords = tibia
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4/18. Morphologic and radiographic characterization of fibular dimelia.

    Fibular dimelia accompanied by complete tibial agenesis is a rare developmental anomaly that has been reported in the anatomic and clinical literature as both a dimelia and a diplopodia. Previous reports have offered variable descriptions of structural aberration and possible modes of altered embryologic development. We present a clinical and radiographic history of the progressive development of this anomaly, and a detailed postsurgical dissection and histopathologic examination. The specific mirroring of the separate components in this case has not been previously reported, and suggests that a reestablishment of limb polarity may have occurred during embryogenesis. Our detailed morphologic investigation strongly suggests a central role for the mesenchymal precursor from which chondro-osseous morphology subsequently emerges, and the relevance to establishing muscular attachments.
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keywords = tibia
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5/18. Brachyphalangy, feet polydactyly, absent/hypoplastic tibiae: a further case and review of main diagnostic findings.

    In 1997, Baraitser et al. (Clin Dysmorphol 6:111-121) described a patient with a complex phenotype characterized by facial dysmorphism, micropenis, brachydactyly, pre-axial polydactyly of the feet and tibial aplasia. We report here a patient with similar features.
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keywords = tibia
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6/18. Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and a constellation of craniofacial, skeletal, and urogenital anomalies in a newborn and similar features in his 36-year-old father.

    We report on a newborn male born to non-consanguineous parents with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) and additional findings of malformed ears, hypertelorism, brachyphalangy in the hands, pterygium of the elbows, knees, and wrists, complex lower limb pre-axial polydactyly, tibial shortening, clubfeet, horseshoe kidney and a micropenis. He had a 46,XY karyotype. His 36-year-old father had similar craniofacial and limb anomalies suggesting an autosomal dominant syndrome with variable expression. Our patients may represent the 3rd and 4th examples of a newly-described syndrome by Baraitser et al. [(1997) Clin Dysmorphol 6:111-121] which is distinguished by malformed ears, complex pre-axial polydactyly and tibial aplasia in the lower limbs, severe brachyphalangy in the hands, and a micropenis.
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keywords = tibia
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7/18. Anterolateral tibial bowing and duplication of the hallux: a rare but distinct entity with good prognosis.

    Congenital anterolateral bowing of the lower leg usually is a symptom of (impending) fracture because of congenital pseudarthrosis. This article reports a case of anterolateral bowing of the lower leg that is characterized by spontaneous correction and combination with duplication of the hallux. A review of the literature showed 10 comparable cases. This article is the first report on the magnetic imaging of this entity and describes its differentiation from congenital pseudarthrosis.
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keywords = tibia
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8/18. Fuhrmann syndrome: two Brazilian cases.

    We describe two unrelated boys with bilateral fibula aplasia, poly- and oligodactyly, and bowed tibiae in two non-consanguineous Brazilian families. These cases are similar to those reported by Fuhrman et al. [(1980). Skeletal Dysplasias. new york: Alan R. Liss Inc. pp. 519-524].
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = tibia
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9/18. Tibial aplasia, lower extremity mirror image polydactyly, brachyphalangy, craniofacial dysmorphism and genital hypoplasia: further delineation and mutational analysis.

    Congenital anomalies involving tibial aplasia are rare. Recently, four children with an unusual combination of limb anomalies, facial dysmorphism and genital hypoplasia have been reported. All affected children reported were male. One case noted father to son transmission, implying autosomal dominant inheritance. We report the first female patient with this syndrome. The patient had tibial aplasia, mirror image preaxial polydactyly involving her feet, brachyphalangy, genital hypoplasia as well as facial dysmorphism including telecanthus, blepharophimosis, a flat nasal bridge with a small nose and a small mouth. Consistent with reports in males of a micropenis and hypoplastic scrotum, our patient had absent labia minora and a very small clitoris. Her father had very minor anomalies suggestive of somatic mosaicism or marked variability. Mouse models affecting limb development are powerful tools in the study of human syndromes. The clinical phenotype of patients with this syndrome is reminiscent of some luxoid mouse mutants suggesting Alx4 and related members of the paired homeodomain class as candidate genes. ALX4 haploinsufficiency in humans causes parietal foramina, which one patient with this syndrome was reported to have. Sequencing of coding exons of ALX4 and its related homologue, ALX3, in the proband failed to reveal coding sequence alterations. Our father/daughter pair is the second family reported, supporting a dominant mode of inheritance. Moreover, the very mild phenotype in the father suggests the need for very careful attention to parental examination in such cases.
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keywords = tibia
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10/18. Familial acromelic frontonasal dysostosis: autosomal dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance.

    Acromelic frontonasal dysostosis (AFND) represents a subgroup of patients with frontonasal malformation with limb abnormalities including preaxial polydactyly and tibial hypoplasia. Previous case reports have suggested autosomal recessive inheritance, given parental consanguinity. However, no affected siblings have been described. Longitudinal clinical history is limited as many do not survive the first years of life. The molecular basis of AFND is not known. Previous investigators have proposed that AFND may result from a perturbation in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway. We present clinical and radiographic findings in two unrelated boys, ages 8 and 9 years, with AFND, one of whom has a family history suggesting dominant inheritance. A focused study of genetic marker data and candidate gene mutation analysis in this family is presented.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = tibia
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