Cases reported "Polyneuropathies"

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1/19. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach. Primary hyperparathyroidism simulating an acute severe polyneuritis.

    The case is presented of a 65 year old lady with recent onset of neuromuscular manifestations, comprising paraparesis, areflexia and unsteady gait, along with episodes of slurring of speech and diplopia, later confirmed to be due to severe hypercalcaemia--which itself was caused by primary hyperparathyroidism. Restoration of normocalcaemia, by means of rehydration and bisphosphonate therapy, resulted in clinical improvement--whilst subsequent parathyroidectomy was followed by complete resolution of all symptoms. In order to make prompt differentiation between the neurological sequelae of hyperparathyroidism and a primary neurological disorder, a high index of suspicion is required. An urgent serum calcium assay, as part of a bone profile, is mandatory in patients who present with neurological symptoms--especially the elderly, amongst whom hyperparathyroidism is especially common.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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2/19. Severe polyneuropathy in a patient with churg-strauss syndrome.

    We describe the clinicopathologic features of a 56-year-old woman affected with churg-strauss syndrome with major peripheral nerve involvement. The patient presented with a 1-month history of mainly distal upper-limb symmetrical paresthesias and hypostenia (bilateral "wrist drop"), palpable purpura and eosinophilia. Multiple pulmonary infiltrates and asthma had been present since the age of 52. skin biopsy demonstrated an eosinophilic necrotizing vasculitis. During the hospitalization she was submitted to cardiac, bronchopulmonary, renal, and gastrointestinal evaluation and EMG. Peripheral nerve and skeletal muscle biopsies were performed. sural nerve biopsy showed a marked degree of demyelination. A perivascular cellular infiltrate within the epineurium was immunoreactive for T lymphocytes and macrophages. Strong HLA-DR immunostaining was present in the endoneurium. IgM, IgE and fibrinogen deposition was found in some epi- and endoneurial vessels. Muscle biopsy showed neurogenic changes and 1 thrombosed vessel surrounded by mononuclear cells. Membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition was present in a few capillaries and major histocompatibility complex products I (MHCP I) was expressed at the subsarcolemmal level in a few isolated perivascular muscle fibers. After immunosuppressive therapy, the patient showed progressive improvement of both clinical symptoms and neurophysiological parameters.
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ranking = 259.68248177778
keywords = macrophage
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3/19. hajdu-cheney syndrome with growth hormone deficiency and neuropathy.

    A hajdu-cheney syndrome is a very rare congenital dysplastic bone disease including acro-osteolysis, short stature, characteristic facies, osteopenia, abnormalities of spine, skull and long bones. A 9 year-old boy presented at our clinic with a chief complaint of short stature and frequent lower respiratory tract infections. He had typical physical and radiographic features of hajdu-cheney syndrome associated with growth hormone (GH) deficiency and peripheral motor neuropathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing GH deficiency and neuropathy in hajdu-cheney syndrome.
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ranking = 2
keywords = bone
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4/19. Plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy--poems syndrome presenting with vasculitic skin lesions and responding to combination chemotherapy.

    We report a 61-year-old male patient who presented with severe sensorimotor neuropathy, leg edema and skin lesions with M-paraprotein and 50% plasma cells in the bone marrow. The POEMS (Crow-Fukase) syndrome was diagnosed and the skin lesions were compatible with vasculitis according to the histopathology. The patient was treated with aggressive combined chemotherapy, which induced improvement in both the clinical and laboratory parameters of his disease. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a vasculitic process underlying the skin changes in the poems syndrome. Our findings may shed light on the unknown pathogenesis of this syndrome and the successful results of treatment support the adoption of an aggressive therapeutic approach in symptomatic patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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5/19. Solitary osteosclerotic plasmacytoma: association with demyelinating polyneuropathy and amyloid deposition.

    A 51-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of polyneuropathy necessitating the use of a wheelchair. Initial diagnosis was idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and associated monoclonal gammopathy. Investigations for multiple myeloma, including bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, were negative. What was initially felt to be an incidental osteosclerotic focus noted on the radiographic bone survey was eventually shown to be a solitary osteosclereotic plasmacytoma with associated amyloid. This dramatically altered treatment. This case emphasizes the importance of including osteosclerotic plasmacytoma in the differential diagnosis of a focal sclerotic bone lesion in the clinical setting of polyneuropathy. These lesions are less likely to progress to multiple myeloma than lytic plasma cell neoplasms, and the presence of polyneuropathy often results in earlier diagnosis and treatment with enhanced prospect of cure. The finding of amyloid deposition within the osteosclerotic lesion may be of prognostic importance.
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ranking = 3
keywords = bone
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6/19. Chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy in graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    In recent years a novel problem has arisen in organ transplantation medicine, namely GVHD. The nervous system has been involved mainly at the level of the CNS and this can lead to a serious outcome for the patient. In rare cases, peripheral nerves may be affected and show acute or chronic polyneuropathy. Here a case is reported of polyneuropathy associated with chronic GVHD. A 32-year-old man, suffering from chronic GVHD following an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for malignant lymphoma at the age of 25, developed a motor dominant polyneuropathy 5 years later. Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated the demyelinating type of polyneuropathy. biopsy specimens from skin and skeletal muscle disclosed perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates expressing T-cell markers. The sural nerve showed a loss of myelinated nerve fibers with epineurial fibrosis and rare occurrence of T cells, but without obvious vasculitic changes. The present case suggested that polyneuropathy could develop in association with chronic GVHD in some patients with a long-standing disease course.
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ranking = 5
keywords = bone
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7/19. Postvaccinal inflammatory neuropathy: peripheral nerve biopsy in 3 cases.

    Autoimmune inflammatory polyneuropathy (PN) can be triggered by vaccination. We report 3 such cases. A 36-year-old female nurse presented 15 days after a hepatitis b vaccination (HBV) with acute sensory disturbances in the lower limbs. She had severe ataxia but no weakness. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level was 84 mg/100 mL, with 3 lymphocytes. A 66-year-old man presented 21 days after HBV with severe motor and sensory PN involving all 4 limbs. A 66-year-old man presented 15 days after a yellow fever vaccination with progressive motor and sensory PN involving all 4 limbs and bilateral facial paralysis. CSF protein level was 300 mg/100 mL, with 5 lymphocytes. Six weeks later, a tracheostomy was performed. In these 3 patients, the nerve deficits lasted for months. In each case, peripheral nerve biopsy showed KP1-positive histiocytes but no t-lymphocytes in the endoneurium. On ultrastructural examination, there was axonal degeneration in the first 2 cases; in case 2, a few myelinated fibers exhibited an intra-axonal macrophage but the myelin sheath was preserved. There was only 1 example of macrophage-associated demyelination in case 2, but these were numerous in case 3. It is likely that in the first 2 cases, an autoimmune reaction against some axonal or neuronal components was triggered by HBV. It induced an acute sensory ataxic PN in case 1 and an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) in case 2. The third patient had a chronic inflammatory demyelinating PN, likely triggered by yellow fever vaccination.
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ranking = 519.36496355556
keywords = macrophage
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8/19. Microvasculitic paraproteinaemic polyneuropathy and B-cell lymphoma.

    Microvasculitis may play a greater part in the pathogenesis of paraproteinaemic neuropathies than is generally recognised, producing tissue destruction by convergent immune and physical mechanisms. We present a patient with a clinical syndrome of mononeuritis multiplex and a circulating IgM lambda paraprotein, in whom bone marrow aspiration revealed a lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma. Microvasculitic changes were present in the first nerve biopsy, and the second showed extensive destruction of neural architecture and deposition of IgM-related material. A 2-stage pathogenic cascade is postulated and explored with a review of the relevant literature.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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9/19. Myelopolyneuropathy and pancytopenia due to copper deficiency and high zinc levels of unknown origin: further support for existence of a new zinc overload syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with idiopathic zinc overload without an identifiable source and secondary copper deficiency causing myelopolyneuropathy and pancytopenia. DESIGN: Case report. PATIENT AND RESULTS: A 46-year-old man presented with severe bone marrow suppression and subsequently developed progressive myelopathy with sensory ataxia. No identifiable cause of myelopathy was detected, and his neuroimaging findings were unremarkable. Plasma analysis demonstrated a low copper level and an increased zinc level (<10 micro g/dL [<12.6-18.9 micro mol/L] and 184 micro g/dL [28.2 micro mol/L], respectively; normal range for both, 80-120 micro g/dL [12.6-18.9 micro mol/L and 12.3-18.4 micro mol/L, respectively) and a low level of ceruloplasmin. There was no evidence for an external source of zinc. Daily oral supplementation with 2 mg resulted in the prompt reversal of hematologic abnormalities, improved but still subnormal plasma copper levels, and normalization of ceruloplasmin values. The patient's neurologic condition deteriorated further, with worsening of myelopathy and development of polyneuropathy. Analyses of plasma copper and zinc levels demonstrated persisting hyperzincemia and subnormal copper levels during 4 years of follow-up. Increased copper supplementation to 8 mg/d partially reversed his neurologic signs. A clinical investigation of 6 siblings and 1 surviving parent did not identify family members with similar abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent hyperzincemia without an identifiable external source appears to be a primary metabolic defect, while copper deficiency is a secondary phenomenon, causing hematologic and neurologic abnormalities. Two unrelated patients with similar idiopathic hyperzincemia and hypocupremia have been recently described. This suggests the existence of a new metabolic disorder with idiopathic zinc overload.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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10/19. Late occurrence of chronic immune-mediated axonal polyneuropathy following bone marrow transplant for juvenile-onset alpha-mannosidosis.

    A 23-year-old woman with juvenile-onset alpha-mannosidosis developed an axonal polyneuropathy more than a year following successful unrelated donor (URD) BMT complicated by chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Progressive muscle weakness and paresthesias developed over at least 4 months, and made her nonambulatory. Nerve conduction and EMG studies demonstrated an axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) IgG was elevated with two peaks not identified in serum. Strength improved after a single course of plasma exchange and continued to improve over 12 months. The response to plasma exchange, elevated CSF IgG production, and evidence of a serum IgM peak suggest an immune-mediated mechanism. Chronic polyneuropathies following BMT are rare and are usually temporally related to GVHD or infection. This patient's disease was unusual because of its late occurrence and chronic onset in the face of resolved GVHD and in the absence of infection.
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ranking = 4
keywords = bone
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