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1/3. Does postdural puncture headache left untreated lead to subdural hematoma? Case report and review of the literature.

    The patient was a 39-year-old pregnant woman who was scheduled for cesarean section. Spinal anesthesia was induced using a 26-gauge needle with an atraumatic bevel. Postoperatively, the patient developed cranial subdural hematoma manifesting as severe non-postural headache, associated with right eye tearing, fifth cranial nerve palsy and left hemiparesis. The diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography scan. The patient was managed by careful neurological follow-up associated with conservative treatment and recovered fully after 12 weeks. Our report reviews the literature on 46 patients who developed a postdural puncture headache complicated by subdural hematoma following spinal or epidural anesthesia. It is possible that postdural puncture headache left untreated may be complicated by the development of subdural hematoma. patients developing a postdural puncture headache unrelieved by conservative measures, as well as the change from postural to non-postural, require careful follow-up for early diagnosis and management of possible subdural hematoma.
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2/3. Prevention strategy for post dural puncture headache.

    We report the anesthetic management of a parturient after an unintentional dural puncture while performing epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section and the strategy to prevent postdural puncture headache (PDPH). We injected the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) back into the subarachnoid space and then administered intrathecal 1.5 mL 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and fentanyl 20 microg to maintain CSF volume via epidural needle. The epidural catheter was inserted following re-identification of the epidural space for possible epidural top-up requirement and postoperative pain relief. After adding 3 mL of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine via epidural catheter, sensory block level reached at T4 bilaterally. No PDPH was observed.
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3/3. Management of postdural puncture headache by epidural saline delivered with a patient-controlled pump--a case report.

    Unintentional dural puncture is the most frequent cause of postdural puncture headache (PDPH) in epidural anesthesia and analgesia. Conservative treatments of PDPH include bed rest, oral analgesics, and hydration. When conservative measures fail, epidural blood patch is an effective substitute. However, epidural blood patch carries some risks, such as subdural hematoma, pneumocephalus, exacerbation of PDPH and new dural puncture. Many patients may refuse the procedure due to the risks involved. We describe a female patient who had her PDPH successfully treated with epidural saline delivered by a patient-controlled analgesia device (Abbott pain management-APM) without molestation of her daily activities.
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keywords = subdural
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