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1/99. Acute abdominal pain and urgency to defecate in the young and the old: a useful symptom-complex?

    In the belief that "pattern recognition" is an important first step of the diagnostic process, we report our observation of an uncommon and heretofore poorly documented symptom-complex in 10 patients, and suggest that the constellation of abdominal pain and urgency to defecate in the acutely ill surgical patient should raise the diagnostic possibility of intra-abdominal bleeding. In our experience, this is statistically likely to be associated with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in the old and a ruptured ectopic pregnancy in the young.
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2/99. Primary repair of cornual rupture occurring at 21 weeks gestation and successful pregnancy outcome.

    The successful delivery in a 31 year old woman at 33 weeks gestation is reported, after repair to a cornual rupture which occurred at 21 weeks gestation. The patient exhibited acute abdominal pain and pending shock. Emergency laparotomy showed a cornual rupture and an intrauterine vital fetus having intact amnion membrane. On the patient's family's insistence, primary repair for a cornual rupture was performed and preservation of the fetus attempted. Postoperatively, tocolytic agent with ritodrine hydrochloride was administered and close follow-up of the patient was uneventful. The patient had a smooth obstetric course until 33 weeks gestation when premature rupture of the membranes occurred, soon followed by the onset of labour. She underwent an elective Caesarean section and delivered a normal male fetus weighing 2140 g with Apgar scores at 1, 5 and 10 min of 6, 8, and 9 respectively. Because of this successful outcome, we suggest that primary repair for such an unusual patient should be accepted.
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ranking = 4
keywords = rupture
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3/99. Pelvic abscess in the second half of pregnancy after oocyte retrieval for in-vitro fertilization: case report.

    We describe a very late manifestation of pelvic abscesses after oocyte retrieval for in-vitro fertilization (IVF). In a twin pregnancy achieved after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, rupture of bilateral ovarian abscesses occurred at the end of the second trimester. An emergency laparotomy was necessary because of an acute abdomen. This complication led to severe maternal and neonatal morbidity, preterm birth and neonatal death. The rare occurrence of acute abdomen in pregnancy due to pelvic infection and the non-specific symptoms of a pelvic abscess after oocyte retrieval for IVF are discussed.
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4/99. Accidentally delayed diagnosis of ruptured ovarian carcinoma in a young woman: a care report.

    Ovarian carcinoma commonly occurs in postmenopausal women and often presents with an insidious course. Acute abdomen is rarely an initial symptom. When these patients present with abdominal discomfort, the disease has already spread throughout the peritoneal cavity. We present a case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a young woman who presented with acute abdomen and intra-abdominal bleeding. This 24-year-old woman was previously diagnosed with a ruptured left ovarian cystic tumor at a primary clinic. She underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy, followed by unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at the clinic. No thorough examination of the peritoneal cavity was done during surgery. The diagnosis of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma was accidentally over-looked until one month later when she returned for routine follow-up. Upon referral to our clinic, the patient underwent a repeat laparotomy. The surgicopathologic diagnosis was intraperitoneal carcinomatosis stage IIIC that could not be excised completely, even though rigorous staging surgery including washing cytology, total abdominal hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, appendectomy, infracolic omentectomy and excision of any suspicious and removable lesions were performed. This case alerts us to consider the possibility of ovarian malignancy when a young woman presents with an acute abdomen secondary to ruptured ovarian cystic tumor and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Careful preoperative preparation and thorough intrasurgical examination of the peritoneal cavity along with a prompt pathologic diagnosis of suspicious lesions will prevent missed diagnoses.
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ranking = 3
keywords = rupture
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5/99. Ruptured metastatic ovarian carcinoma presenting as acute abdomen.

    Acute abdomen is a challenge to first-line physicians because of frequently missed diagnoses and potential follow-on legal problems. Improving the management of these patients is of paramount importance, not only for saving lives, but also for reducing untoward problems associated with improper management. We present a case of a patient with acute abdomen due to intraperitoneal hemorrhage secondary to rupture of an ovarian tumor. Following emergency surgery, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic ovarian carcinoma. Because of improper preparation of the gastrointestinal tract, the patient underwent repeat exploratory laparotomy for colon carcinoma. Although this situation did not affect the outcome of the patient in this case, we are concerned that the patient did not benefit from a single operation, with primary complete excision of the tumor plus a colostomy. The outcome of patients with pelvic malignancy, especially those with ovarian carcinoma, might be better if initial surgery achieved optimal tumor debulking. This is possible with good preoperative planning and preparation. We emphasize the importance of preoperative preparation in spite of urgently needed care. Furthermore, every first-line physician should communicate the possibility of malignancy to patients and their families.
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keywords = rupture
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6/99. Heterotopic pregnancy presenting as an acute abdomen: a diagnostic masquerader.

    Simultaneous intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancy is called heterotopic pregnancy. It is a rare complication of pregnancy, especially in the absence of predisposing factors. It is known to present with a variety of symptoms and signs often leading to a delay in establishing the correct diagnosis. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman, known to be 14 weeks pregnant, presenting with acute abdominal pain. The confirmation of a viable intrauterine pregnancy led to a general surgery consultation. A heterotopic ruptured right ectopic tubal pregnancy was found. Right salpingectomy was performed. The patient recovered uneventfully. The intrauterine pregnancy was not affected. This case illustrates the variable presentation of heterotopic pregnancy and the need for general surgeons to be suspicious of pregnancy related complications, even in the presence of a viable intrauterine pregnancy.
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keywords = rupture
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7/99. Sigmoid colon rupture secondary to Crede's method in a patient with spinal cord injury.

    Crede's method is a manual suprapubic pressure exerted with a clenched fist or fingers, used to initiate micturition, in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) who have neurovesical dysfunction. It is usually a benign maneuver unassociated with any major complications. This paper will illustrate a case report involving a sigmoid colon rupture secondary to Crede's method in a patient with SCI. Various techniques of Crede's method are briefly described. It is recommended that patients with quadriplegia avoid forceful use of Crede's method, as it may cause contusion of the abdominal wall and injuries to internal viscera, possibly leading to colonic rupture. It is believed that this is the first reported case of such an unusual complication of Crede's method in patients with SCI.
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ranking = 3
keywords = rupture
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8/99. Spontaneous rupture of renal angiomyolipoma presenting as acute abdomen.

    Five cases of renal angiomyolipoma which underwent spontaneous rupture are described. These patients presented as an "acute abdomen" for which the diagnosis was not initially apparent. A high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis even with modern imaging techniques. The treatment of these tumours is discussed.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = rupture
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9/99. Spontaneous uterine perforation of pyometra. A report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous perforation of pyometra is a rare cause of generalized peritonitis; only 17 cases have been reported. CASES: Three cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra occurred; two were associated with carcinoma of the cervix. All were treated with exploratory laparotomy and drainage. The first patient died of recurrent carcinoma of the cervix five months after laparotomy. The second patient died of septic shock shortly after the operation. The third patient made a good postoperative recovery. CONCLUSION: pyometra is a serious medical condition, because of both its association with malignant disease and the danger of spontaneous perforation, which carries significant morbidity and mortality. Although rare, ruptured pyometra should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in elderly women, especially those with malignant disorders of the genital tract. The treatment of pyometra rupture is immediate laparotomy, peritoneal lavage and drainage, or simple hysterectomy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = rupture
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10/99. Lupus abdominal crisis owing to rupture of an ileocolic aneurysm with successful angiographic treatment.

    There are many causes of acute abdominal pain, or abdominal "crises," in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), most frequently the causes are serositis or vasculitis. vasculitis generally causes small vessel abnormalities and may present with symptoms owing to mucosal damage, such as pain, diarrhea, or bleeding. We present a patient with SLE who had the acute onset of severe abdominal pain while hospitalized for a lupus flare and who was found to have a ruptured ileocolic aneurysm with intraperitoneal bleeding. She was successfully managed with angiographic embolization, without further complications. Although angiography is well established as a therapeutic intervention for mesenteric aneurysms of various etiologies, this is the first case of an SLE-related ileocolic aneurysm so managed. This entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in patients with lupus, and angiographic embolization should be considered in its management.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = rupture
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