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1/60. Acute hyperkalemia associated with intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid therapy.

    Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (Amicar) is used to treat severe hemorrhage refractory to usual medical management. This antifibrinolytic drug has been associated with a number of renal complications. However, there are no descriptions of this medication causing hyperkalemia. This report describes the development of hyperkalemia in a patient with underlying chronic renal insufficiency treated with intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid. The patient, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, had no other obvious cause for the acute increase in serum potassium concentration. Based on data in animals and humans, the cationic amino acids lysine and arginine have been shown to enter muscle cells in exchange for potassium and lead to hyperkalemia through a shift of potassium from the intracellular to the extracellular space. Epsilon-aminocaproic acid, a synthetic amino acid structurally similar to lysine and arginine, also has been noted to cause an acute increase in serum potassium in anephric dogs infused with this medication. It is probable that the mechanism underlying the increase in serum potassium with epsilon-aminocaproic acid is also based on the shift of potassium from the intracellular to the extracellular space. Hence, it appears that intravenous epsilon-aminocaproic acid can also cause hyperkalemia in humans.
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2/60. Respiratory difficulty following bismuth subgallate aspiration.

    bismuth subgallate, an agent that initiates clotting via activation of factor xii, has been advocated for use in controlling bleeding during tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Direct aspiration of bismuth has produced pulmonary complications in laboratory animals, but no clinical correlation in humans has been previously described. We report 2 cases of bismuth aspiration that resulted in respiratory difficulty after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Neither child's respiratory compromise required airway intubation. This report of pulmonary complications secondary to bismuth aspiration should alert surgeons to the potential for airway problems when using bismuth as a hemostatic agent for tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy.
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3/60. maxillary sinus involution after endoscopic sinus surgery in a child: a case report.

    Studies in animal models have suggested that functional endoscopic sinus surgery may affect facial skeletal growth in children, although reviews of large clinical series do not support this observation. This is a case report of a 12 year old male referred to the senior author (SBL) several months after undergoing bilateral functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The preoperative computed tomograms of the paranasal sinuses were normal with symmetrical well-developed paranasal sinuses. Postoperative computed tomography revealed nearly total involution of the osseous skeleton of the left maxillary sinus. This is the first clinical report of alterations in the facial skeleton of a child secondary to iatrogenic trauma directed at the osteomeatal complex. The case and related literature are reviewed in detail.
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4/60. Reproducible erythroid aplasia caused by mycophenolate mofetil.

    anemia secondary to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was recently described in experimental animals. A clinical association between MMF and anemia has been observed, but there are no proven reports. We describe a girl with chronic graft failure who developed erythroid aplasia under immunosuppression with MMF. She showed prompt resolution when MMF was discontinued and a recurrence of this clinical course when MMF was restarted. As re-challenge with a medication is the most definitive approach for showing a direct relationship between the drug and the side effect, this case clearly demonstrates that MMF can cause erythroid aplasia.
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5/60. rhodococcus equi and cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant patient: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in animals. Human infection is rare. Increasing number of cases are being reported in immunosuppressed individuals mostly associated with hiv infection, but also in solid organ transplant recipients and leukemia/lymphoma patients. We report on an adult male who developed pneumonia and gastroenteritis 4 mo after receiving a renal transplant. CT scan of the lungs showed a dominant 2.5-cm upper lobe lung mass and smaller bilateral nodules. He underwent a diagnostic bronchoscopy with fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the largest lung nodule. Smears showed histiocytic granulomatous inflammation, foamy macrophages, and acute inflammatory exudate. Scattered foamy macrophages displayed intracellular coccobacilli identifiable on Diff-Quik stain. A few cells with changes suggestive of viral inclusions were identified. cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunostain was positive in the cell block sections. lung cultures grew R. equi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of coinfection with R. equi and CMV.
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6/60. Using gabapentin to treat failed back surgery syndrome caused by epidural fibrosis: A report of 2 cases.

    failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a long-lasting, often disabling, and relatively frequent (5%-10%) complication of lumbosacral spine surgery. Epidural fibrosis is among the most common causes of FBSS, and it is often recalcitrant to treatment. Repeated surgery for fibrosis has only a 30% to 35% success rate, whereas 15% to 20% of patients report worsening of their symptoms. Long-term outcome studies focusing on pharmacologic management of chronic back pain secondary to epidural fibrosis are lacking in the literature. This report presents 2 cases of severe epidural fibrosis managed successfully with gabapentin monotherapy. In both cases, functional status improved markedly and pain was significantly diminished. Gabapentin has an established, favorable safety profile and has been shown to be effective in various animal models and human studies of chronic neuropathic pain. Clinicians should consider gabapentin as a pharmacologic treatment alternative in the management of FBSS caused by epidural fibrosis.
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7/60. Are some memory deficits unique to lesions of the mammillary bodies?

    The role of the mammillary bodies in human memory is still in debate. A recent model of human amnesia proposes similar functions for the mammillary bodies and the hippocampus. But the main evidence for this model comes from animal studies using the delayed non-matching to sample paradigm. We describe a patient who developed a severe memory impairment after surgical removal of a germinoma. Postsurgical high resolution MRI revealed bilaterally shrunken mammillary bodies and an infarct of the left mammillary body. There were no other relevant lesions. Neuropsychological testing showed mildly impaired frontal lobe functions (executive functions, working memory and word fluency), almost intact learning and recognition, but severely impaired free and delayed recall. Experimental investigations revealed a reduced but preserved release of proactive interference and a pronounced impairment of recency and source judgments. We conclude that the mammillary bodies do play a prominent role in human memory, although the role differs slightly from that of the hippocampus.
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8/60. Severe phototoxic reaction to laser treatment in a patient taking St John's Wort.

    Potential patients in the developed world are increasingly turning to treatment with herbs. One of the most popular herbs taken for depression is St John's Wort, which contains the potential photosensitizer hypericin. 'Hypericism' is a term used to describe a state of skin sensitivity to visible light in animals following ingestion of hypericin-containing plants and feed. A patient who developed a severe phototoxic reaction to laser light at 532 nm and also an exaggerated and unexpectedly severe response to pulsed dye laser light at 585 nm is described. It subsequently transpired that the patient was taking St John's Wort at the time of laser treatment.
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9/60. glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy after heart transplantation.

    The glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis proposes that hippocampal atrophy may result from excessive steroid exposure. Although demonstrated in animal models and some human hypercortisolemic states, hippocampal damage as a possible consequence of posttransplant steroid immunosuppression has not been investigated in human heart transplant recipients. We report a case of a 37-year-old female heart transplant recipient who had the clinical, neuropsychiatric, and neuroimaging findings consistent with hippocampal atrophy after 5 years of steroid exposure.
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10/60. Profound sinus bradycardia after intravenous nicardipine.

    IMPLICATIONS: nicardipine-induced bradycardia has been reported in experimental animals but not in clinical patients. We report a clinical case of unexpected bradycardia caused by nicardipine. The mechanism of this bradycardia was not clear, and depression of sympathetic tone by epidural anesthesia, hypothermia, and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation might have been contributory.
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