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1/20. Catastrophic consequences of a free floating thrombus in ascending aorta.

    Floating masses in ascending aorta are an uncommon source of embolism. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman, smoker, on synthetic progestagen, with no previous history of thrombotic events, who was admitted to our emergency department for an acute anterior myocardial infarction. Coronary angiogram showed occlusion of left main coronary trunk. Recanalization of the artery was obtained. Ascending aorta angiogram revealed a free floating mass attached to the aortic wall without evidence of aortic dissection. Transesophageal echocardiography confirmed the presence of a pedunculated mobile mass attached to the aortic wall superior to the left coronary ostium. The patient underwent urgent surgery. Intraoperatively a floating thrombus was localized in the posterior wall of ascending aorta. At macroscopical examination aortic wall and leaflets were normal. Post-operative low cardiac output refractory to inotropic drugs and intraaortic balloon counterpulsation required a circulatory assist device. Consequences for the patient were catastrophic in terms of outcome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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2/20. Use of the intra-aortic balloon pump to stop gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Temporary aortic occlusion can be lifesaving in selected conditions. We describe the unorthodox use of an intra-aortic balloon pump without counterpulsation to achieve temporary vascular control in a patient with shock caused by rapid upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The technique of aortic balloon occlusion has been reported in several clinical circumstances, primarily trauma. However, its use to increase blood pressure and gain time for resuscitation before laparotomy for catastrophic gastrointestinal bleeding has not previously been described.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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3/20. Vascular complications of the intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation.

    From September 1994 to December 2002, 6,274 cardiosurgery operations were performed at the Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital, Hradec Kralove, czech republic. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) was applied in 192 cases (3.1%). From this group of 192 counterpulsated patients 103 were successfully treated (53.6%); 89 counterpulsated patients (46.4%) died from the surgical procedure (30-day mortality rate). In 5 cases (2.6%) from the group of 192, the IABP was introduced before the operation. Ischemic changes of the limb were observed in 11 cases (5.7%). Significant bleeding occurred at the site of puncture in 6 cases (3.1%). dissection of the femoral and iliac arteries was found in 2 patients (1.0%), perforation of the iliac artery in 1 case (0.5%). In 2 cases (1.0%) the balloon was led into the venous system. In case report No. 1 an introduction of the balloon under a sclerotic plaque of the descending aorta and iliac artery is described. In case report No. 2 a placement of the balloon in the venous bloodstream is reported.
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ranking = 5
keywords = counterpulsation
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4/20. Levosimendan: a promising treatment for myocardial stunning?

    We report a case of a 55-year-old male undergoing major orofacial cancer surgery. A stent to the left anterior descending artery had been implanted for ischaemic heart disease 3 years previously. Twenty-four hours after uneventful anaesthesia and surgery, the patient developed myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock. Immediate percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, intra aortic balloon counterpulsation, and catecholamine therapy failed to stabilise haemodynamics. In light of successful reperfusion therapy and an only moderate elevation of troponin i, myocardial stunning rather than myonecrosis was considered to be the major contributor to life-threatening left ventricular failure. Therefore, the calcium-sensitising drug levosimendan, which exerts positive inotropic activity without increasing myocardial oxygen demand, was administered as a rescue medication. Within 24 h, levosimendan resulted in decreased filling pressures, reduced left ventricular end-diastolic volume, and augmented systemic pressures. Seven days following surgery, the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit in good clinical condition.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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5/20. Effect of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation on right-left shunt following right ventricular infarction.

    Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsations decrease the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and, subsequently, the left atrial pressure in patients with impaired myocardial function following myocardial infarction. This paper reports a case of right ventricular infarction in a patient with patency of the oval foramen where the use of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation led to the perpetuation of the right-to-left shunt.
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ranking = 6
keywords = counterpulsation
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6/20. Right ventricular assist and prostacyclin infusion for allograft failure in the presence of high pulmonary vascular resistance.

    The presence of high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) greater than 4 wood units contributes to significant early posttransplant mortality, and remains a negative predictor of long-term survival. Current trends have been toward exclusion of the recipient with high PVR from the orthotopic procedure; elective heterotopic allograft placement is increasingly advocated. A patient with a PVR of 6 wood units underwent orthotopic transplantation; the cardiac allograft from a 12 kg heavier donor was implanted after an ischemic time of 115 minutes. Early graft failure at 4 hours and subsequent cardiac arrest were followed by reinstitution of cardiopulmonary bypass, during which time optimal pharmacologic manipulation of the pulmonary vasculature was undertaken, including the use of high-dose prostacyclin. Refractory right heart failure indicated the requirement for right ventricular assistance (RVA) for patient survival. RVA with a Bio-Medicus pump was instituted in association with high-dose prostacyclin; an intraaortic balloon pump was inserted 12 hours later. maintenance immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine and azathioprine alone. RVA was maintained for 3 days; during this time the patient was totally pump dependent. Over an 18-hour period the patient was weaned and successfully withdrawn from RVA. Intraaortic balloon pump counterpulsation and the prostacyclin infusion were continued for 6 and 10 days, respectively. The clinical implications of the various interventions that resulted in the patient's survival are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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7/20. Management of low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery using enoximone.

    This case report describes the use of enoximone, a potent phosphodiesterase F-IV inhibitor with inotropic and vasodilator actions, to treat low output syndrome after cardiac surgery. The reduced cardiac output was unresponsive to a combination of inotropic drugs and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation was contraindicated. cardiac output was increased dramatically by enoximone, but systemic vascular resistance and perfusion pressure remained low until the addition of metaraminol.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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8/20. nursing implication for pulmonary artery balloon counterpulsation: a treatment for right ventricular dysfunction after cardiac surgery.

    PPRVD is a phenomenon frequently observed in the operating room. Its development can be attributed to a single or many factors associated with cardiac operation. Namely, its presence is precipated by injury to the RV myocardium or changes in the normal hemodynamic functions of the RV. While PPRVD occurs in isolation, it is usually seen with concomitant LV dysfunction. When conventional medical management of LV dysfunction does not improve yet unmasks RV dysfunction, some type of ventricular assist device to support RV dysfunction may be needed to wean patients from cardiopulmonary bypass such as PABC. PABC has been demonstrated to be useful in the management of mild to moderate PPRVD and weaning from CPB. Severe PPRVD has not been demonstrated to benefit from PABC. The major concern in managing PPRVD is the lack of quantifiable criteria for determining levels of RV injury. research is continuing in this area. Likewise, investigations are under way to develop a transvenous PABC catheter. This catheter would allow for increased PABC use as it would not require surgical placement or removal. The present PABC model could potentially be used in any hospital that uses conventional intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. The patient presented in this case was cared for in a 350-bed community hospital in the Northeast section of the united states. A PABC patient can present a unique nursing challenge. It is hoped that this article will assist nurses in the future management of these patients.
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ranking = 5
keywords = counterpulsation
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9/20. Balloon pump support of the failing right heart.

    This report reviews a clinical experience with pulmonary artery counterpulsation with a balloon pump in a patient with pulmonary embolization superimposed upon severe trivalvular rheumatic heart disease. This patient underwent a pulmonary embolectomy and triple-valve replacement requiring a pulmonary artery balloon pump for bypass discontinuation and postbypass hemodynamic support. The field of right heart counterpulsation is briefly reviewed, and the technical details of the implantation and management of the device are elaborated.
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ranking = 2
keywords = counterpulsation
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10/20. Vascular complications as a result of intra-aortic balloon pumping.

    Intra-aortic balloon conterpulsation (IABP) was used to assist 109 patients with extensive myocardial infarcts, unstable angina, cardiogenic shock, and unstable cardiodynamic states after cardiopulmonary bypass over a six year period. Severe vascular occlusion occurred in three patients (3%) which required an above the knee amputation. Each patient had a long history of smoking. obesity, atherosclerotic disease of the femoral vessels, and extensive coronary artery disease were additional contributing factors. Two of the three patients survived, but both survivors had extensive postoperative myocardial infarctions. A low flow cardiac state and the presence of atherosclerotic changes in the legs must be precipitating factors for the vascular complications. Several possible methods to minimize complications of this nature include 1) angiographic examination of the lower aorta and femoral arteries at the time of cardiac catheterization, 2) frequent monitoring with ultrasound equipment, and 3) use of anticoagulation during and after the period of counterpulsation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = counterpulsation
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