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11/478. anxiety symptoms and panic attacks preceding pancreatic cancer diagnosis.

    Cancer of the pancreas is a highly malignant disease with a very poor prognosis. depression and anxiety occur more frequently in cancer of the pancreas than they do in other forms of intra-abdominal malignancies and other cancers in general. Yet, the etiology of psychiatric symptoms in patients with cancer of the pancreas may not be traced solely to poor prognosis, pain, or existential issues related to death and dying. In as many as half of patients that go on to be diagnosed with the disease, symptoms of depression and anxiety precede knowledge of the diagnosis. This observation has raised speculation that mood and anxiety syndromes are related to disruption in one of the physiologic functions of the pancreas. In this paper, we present a patient who had no prior psychiatric history and developed panic attacks just prior to diagnosis of her cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature where panic attacks, not simply anxiety, presented prior to a pancreatic cancer diagnosis. Her symptoms resolved following resection of the tumor. Implications of such phenomena for the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety and depression in pancreas cancer are discussed.
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12/478. herpes simplex encephalitis after brain surgery: case report and review of the literature.

    Intracranial infection after neurosurgical intervention most often is caused by bacteria. A rare case of fatal herpes simplex encephalitis after removal of a meningioma is described and similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed. Recent diagnostic tools, including detection of herpes viral dna sequences by polymerase chain reaction, complement clinical suspicion and facilitate mandatory early diagnosis, because herpes encephalitis, without rapid initiation of treatment, may lead to severe disability or death.
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13/478. Occipitocervicothoracic fixation for spinal instability in patients with neoplastic processes.

    OBJECT: Occipitocervicothoracic (OCT) fixation and fusion is an infrequently performed procedure to treat patients with severe spinal instability. Only three cases have been reported in the literature. The authors have retrospectively reviewed their experience with performing OCT fixation in patients with neoplastic processes, paying particular attention to method, pain relief, and neurological status. methods: From July 1994 through July 1998, 13 of 552 patients who underwent a total of 722 spinal operations at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have required OCT fixation for spinal instability caused by neoplastic processes (12 of 13 patients) or rheumatoid arthritis (one of 13 patients). Fixation was achieved by attaching two intraoperatively contoured titanium rods to the occiput via burr holes and Luque wires or cables; to the cervical spinous processes with wisconsin wires; and to the thoracic spine with a combination of transverse process and pedicle hooks. Crosslinks were used to attain additional stability. In all patients but one arthrodesis was performed using allograft. At a follow-up duration of 1 to 45 months (mean 14 months), six of the 12 patients with neoplasms remained alive, whereas the other six patients had died of malignant primary disease. There were no deaths related to the surgical procedure. Postoperatively, one patient experienced respiratory insufficiency, and two patients required revision of rotational or free myocutaneous flaps. All patients who presented with spine-based pain experienced a reduction in pain, as measured by a visual analog scale for pain. All patients who were neurologically intact preoperatively remained so; seven of seven patients with neurological impairment improved; and six of seven patients improved one Frankel grade. There were no occurrences of instrumentation failure or hardware-related complications. In one patient a revision of the instrumentation was required 13.5 months following the initial surgery for progression of malignant fibrous histiosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, OCT fixation is an effective means of attaining stabilization that can provide pain relief and neurological preservation or improvement.
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14/478. nitric oxide inhalation in the treatment of primary graft failure following heart transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Primary graft failure from right or left ventricular insufficiency remains a serious cause of early death following heart transplantation. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a potent pulmonary vasodilator that could decrease pulmonary pressure and improve right ventricular function. methods: Two cases of early graft failure following orthotopic heart transplantation were treated with NO inhalation. The treatment consisted of inhalation of 20 ppm of NO, introduced 4 to 6 hours following transplantation, in 2 patients supported with high doses of inotropic agents and vasopressors in addition to the intra-aortic balloon pump. RESULTS: In the first and second cases, NO inhalation resulted in a decrease in pulmonary artery pressure, in a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance and in an increase in cardiac index. In the second patient, systemic oxygenation improved markedly 30 minutes after initiation of NO. In the 2 patients, NO inhalation, mechanical ventilation and the intra-aortic balloon pump were weaned 4 days following transplantation. CONCLUSION: Primary graft failure from donor ischemic damage, reperfusion injury or pulmonary hypertension remains a serious complication. The use of an intra-aortic balloon pump, inotropic agents and of inhaled NO appears to offer the best support for recovery of donor heart function. Primary graft failure from right or left ventricular insufficiency remains a serious cause of early mortality following heart transplantation. Ischemic damage of donor heart, reperfusion injury or pulmonary hypertension are the main causes of early graft failure. Although the cause is multifactorial, treatment of primary organ failure remains difficult with dismal results. The objective of the present study was to review the result of 2 patients with donor right heart failure following heart transplantation treated with inhaled nitric oxide (NO).
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15/478. Necrotizing enterocolitis in omphalopagus conjoined twins.

    female omphalopagus twins underwent laparotomy on the second day of life after an antenatally diagnosed high jejunal bowel obstruction. Bowel resection and choldocho-enterostomies were performed. Despite recovery from laparotomy, the development of severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in one twin led to rapid deterioration and the death of both infants on day 34. The elucidation of the combined biliary tree, the dilemma of NEC in conjoined twins, and the possibilities of emergency separation are discussed. Consideration should be given to emergency separation of conjoined twins in the event of potentially lethal complications.
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16/478. Multicentric warfarin-induced skin necrosis complicating heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Two patients developed catastrophic multicentric skin necrosis while receiving warfarin to treat venous thromboembolism complicated by immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Patient 1 developed skin necrosis involving the breasts, thighs, and face, as well as venous limb gangrene and bilateral hemorrhagic necrosis of the adrenal glands, resulting in death. The second patient developed bilateral mammary necrosis necessitating mastectomies, as well as skin necrosis involving the thigh. Neither patient had an identifiable hypercoagulable syndrome, other than HIT. HIT may represent a risk factor for the development of multicentric warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN).
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17/478. Treatment of iatrogenic previable premature rupture of membranes with intra-amniotic injection of platelets and cryoprecipitate (amniopatch): preliminary experience.

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the treatment of iatrogenic previable premature rupture of membranes with the intra-amniotic injection of platelets and cryoprecipitate (amniopatch). STUDY DESIGN: patients with iatrogenic previable premature rupture of membranes and without evidence of intra-amniotic infection underwent transabdominal intra-amniotic injection of platelets and cryoprecipitate through a 22-gauge needle. The study was approved by the Institutional review Board of St Joseph's Hospital in Tampa, florida, and all patients gave written informed consent. RESULTS: Seven patients with iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes underwent placement of an amniopatch. Membrane sealing was verifiable in 6 of 7 patients. Three patients had iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes after operative fetoscopy, 3 cases were after genetic amniocentesis, and 1 was after diagnostic fetoscopy. Three pregnancies progressed well, with restoration of the amniotic fluid volume and no further leakage. Two patients had unexplained fetal death despite successful sealing. One case of bladder outlet obstruction had no further leakage, but oligohydramnios persisted and did not allow unequivocal documentation of sealing. One patient miscarried from twin-twin transfusion, but the amniotic cavity was sealed. CONCLUSIONS: Iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes can be treated effectively with an amniopatch. The technique is simple and does not require knowledge of the exact location of the defect. Unexpected fetal death from the procedure may be attributable to vasoactive effects of platelets or indigo carmine. Although the appropriate dose of platelets and cryoprecipitate needs to be established, the amniopatch may mean that iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes no longer needs to be considered a devastating complication of pregnancy.
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18/478. Acute rupture of an aortic false aneurysm treated with a stent-graft.

    PURPOSE: To report the use of an aortic endograft to treat a ruptured false aneurysm at the anastomosis of an aortofemoral bypass graft. methods AND RESULTS: A 68-year-old man with a 30-year-old aorto-right femoral bypass and multiple comorbidities was admitted to the hospital complaining of acute abdominal pain. Imaging identified a 60-mm ruptured aortic false aneurysm with associated retroperitoneal hematoma, a 9-cm right femoral false aneurysm, and a calcified 23-mm left common iliac aneurysm. Two slightly overlapping Vanguard straight stent-grafts were implanted in the aorta and left common iliac artery in an emergency procedure owing to the patient's high surgical risk. The anastomotic false aneurysm and the bypass were excluded. A left-to-right femorofemoral bypass was performed to re-establish flow to the right femoral artery with ligation of the external iliac artery. The patient recovered uneventfully. He remained well with a successful repair until his death of a myocardial infarction 6 months after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular grafting can be used successfully for the urgent treatment of aortic false aneurysm rupture.
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19/478. cricoid cartilage necrosis after arytenoidectomy in a previously irradiated larynx.

    Several open and endoscopic surgical techniques are available to provide an adequate airway for patients with bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Transoral laser arytenoidectomy has repeatedly been reported to be a reliable and effective minimally invasive procedure for airway restoration. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of serious complications, other than poor vocal results, aspiration, and failed decannulation in individual patients, that have resulted from this intervention. We report a case in which arytenoidectomy led to severe complications and death. Prior irradiation is suspected to be a causative factor. To prevent such an outcome, we believe that operative settings should be chosen that avoid deep thermal injury of the laryngeal framework.
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20/478. Giant aneurysm of saphenous vein graft to coronary artery compressing the right atrium.

    Aneurysm of reverse aortocoronary saphenous vein graft is a known complication of coronary artery bypass grafting. In this report we present a case of a 60-year-old man who presented 12 years after coronary artery bypass grafting with a giant graft aneurysm of the reverse aortocoronary saphenous vein graft to the right coronary artery, compressing the right atrium. Spiral computed tomography was used to identify the aneurysm measuring 7 x 6 x 7 cm. We also reviewed the English-language literature and found reports of 50 patients with similar aneurysms of which 30 (61%) were identified as true aneurysms and 17 (33%) were identified as pseudoaneurysms. Three patients could not be identified into either group. We reviewed the presenting symptoms, diagnostic tools, and treatment options for this rare entity. An understanding of the pathophysiology of reverse aortocoronary saphenous vein graft aneurysm is important to prevent the possibility of aneurysm rupture, embolization, myocardial infarction, or death.
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