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1/74. Electroconvulsive treatment of a bipolar adolescent postcraniotomy for brain stem astrocytoma.

    This is the first reported use of electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) in an adolescent with bipolar mania who had been treated with craniectomy for an intracranial neoplasm. The reported case is of a 16-year-old girl with a history of brain stem glioma (pontomesencephalic astrocytoma) diagnosed at 13 years of age. She presented in a psychiatric emergency room with suicidal ideation, depressed mood, irritability, olfactory hallucinations, early insomnia, grandiosity, and guilt. Her symptoms failed to respond to a trial of an antidepressant, mood stabilizer alone, and mood stabilizer in conjunction with a neuroleptic. The decision to use ECT was based on suicidal ideation, extreme disinhibition, and danger to self and others. Significant improvement in mood and remission in psychosis were noted after the eighth treatment. Comparison of 2-week pre-ECT and 3-month post-ECT cognitive testing revealed no change in IQ. This report highlights rapid response and the ability to tolerate ECT in an adolescent diagnosed with bipolar disorder, who had also been treated with radiation and craniotomy.
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2/74. Treatment of traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation in chronic phase.

    We report the case of 27-year-old woman who presented with mild neurological deficits with significant anterior dislocation of the atlanto-occipital junction in a chronic phase after initial conservative treatment in another hospital. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment for atlanto-occipital dislocation is emphasized. The dislocation could not be reduced sufficiently either by halo ring cervical traction or surgical procedure 5 months after the accident. Therefore, transoral odontoidectomy for decompression of the medulla, together with the posterior occipitocervical fusion with a titanium loop brace was performed. The patient's symptoms disappeared completely within a few months after the operation. magnetic resonance imaging findings suggesting soft tissue damage is the key to an early diagnosis and subsequent stabilization of traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation in the early phase. Transoral decompressive odontoidectomy combined with posterior fusion may be considered for the treatment of irreducible atlanto-occipital dislocation in a chronic phase.
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keywords = decompressive
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3/74. An unusual fatal complication of low basilar trunk aneurysm surgery: isolated prepontine tension pneumocephalus.

    OBJECTIVE: A case of postoperative tension pneumocephalus after low basilar trunk aneurysm clipping is presented. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated prepontine tension pneumocephalus. BACKGROUND: A 63-year-old woman was admitted for repair of a basilar aneurysm that had caused a subarachnoid hemorrhage. She was cooperative and partially oriented. According to Hunt & Hess classification, she was considered Grade III. METHOD: The aneurysm was clipped, using a right lateral suboccipital craniectomy with the patient in the sitting position. In the early postoperative period, she had no new neurological deficit. However, 2 hours later the patient became lethargic and unresponsive to verbal commands. Emergency CT scan revealed an isolated prepontine tension pneumocephalus with prominent posterior displacement of the pons. She was immediately taken back to surgery. Upon incision of the dura mater, air could be heard escaping under pressure from the posterior fossa cavity. The clip was in its proper position and all arteries were patent. Spontaneous respiration and pupil reflexes returned soon after surgery, but she remained unconscious and died 3 days later. CONCLUSION: We believe that this death was directly attributable to the tension pneumocephalus and the distortion of the pons. Postoperative prepontine tension pneumocephalus, although this is an extremely rare condition, should be considered if a patient deteriorates after basilar aneurysm surgery in the sitting position.
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4/74. Post-surgical shunt hepatopulmonary syndrome in a case of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension: lack of efficacy of shunt reversal.

    hepatopulmonary syndrome, a consequence of significant liver disease and portal hypertension, is thought to be secondary to the effects of vasoactive substances, normally inactivated in the liver, on the pulmonary vasculature. We report a patient with preserved hepatic function who underwent a decompressive surgical porto-systemic shunt for non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. This patient developed hepatopulmonary syndrome with dyspnoea and oxygen desaturation 2 years post-surgical shunt. Over the next 7 years, the patient's respiratory function became increasingly impaired although hepatic function remained preserved. Because of the hypothesized role of porto-systemic shunting in the aetiology of this syndrome, the surgical shunt was successfully reversed angiographically. No improvement in dyspnoea or oxygen saturation occurred and liver transplantation was undertaken. Six months post-transplant, the patient has decreased his oxygen requirements and is free of dyspnoea. Our experience supports the causal role of porto-systemic shunting in the pathogenesis of hepatopulmonary syndrome but suggests that merely decreasing the extent of porto-systemic shunting is not beneficial. liver transplantation remains the only reliable therapeutic modality available to these patients.
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ranking = 0.99833124768326
keywords = decompressive
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5/74. Fatal tumoural haemorrhage following decompressive craniectomy: a report of three cases.

    Three cases of large and deep seated anaplastic cerebral glioma were treated by bone and dural decompression. The patients worsened suddenly within 12 h of surgery and later died. Postmortem examination revealed a large intratumoural clot in each case. The effects of decompression and the probable causes of fatal bleeding are analysed in this report.
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ranking = 39.977084593911
keywords = decompressive craniectomy, craniectomy, decompressive
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6/74. Cranio-orbital missile wound and bullet migration. Case report.

    An unusual case of craniocerebral missile injury, with orbital roof perforation and spontaneous bullet migration into the maxillary sinus, is reported. emergency treatment consisted in wide craniectomy around the bullet entry point, blood and foreign bodies debridement. Subsequent procedures were necessary for abscess evacuation, transmaxillary bullet removal and later cranial vault reconstruction. Challenging aspects were the treatment of the infectious complications, following cerebrospinal fluid fistula through the wound, and the onset of post-traumatic epilepsy, scarcely responsive to common antiepileptic drugs. The treatment of the abscess by combined systemic and intracavitary antibiotic therapy and of the chronic seizures by progressive adjustment with new protocols of antiepileptic drugs under EEG and brain mapping revealed successful.
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7/74. Cerebral dissection from syringomyelia demonstrated using cine magnetic resonance imaging. Case report.

    A 16-year-old boy presented at the authors' emergency department with a sudden deterioration of respiration. He had been paraparetic for 3 years and had become quadriplegic 2 days previously. Magnetic resonance images revealed a Chiari I malformation and a hydromyelic cavity extending from C-1 to T-11. Rostrally, a small cylindrically shaped lesion extended from the cervicomedullary junction to the left semioval center. The patient made a dramatic neurological recovery following suboccipital craniectomy and upper cervical laminectomies with augmentation duraplasties followed by placement of a syringoperitoneal shunt.
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keywords = craniectomy
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8/74. Extended posture of lumbar spine precipitating cauda equina compression arising from a postoperative epidural clot.

    We report a patient with nonoperatively treated acute cauda equina compression arising from an epidural clot that developed after decompressive surgery for lumbar canal stenosis. A 43-year-old woman underwent lumbar laminotomy, and was symptom-free for 3 hours; but this was followed by paresis. Postoperative myelography showed obstruction of the contrast column at the level of the laminotomy; this was relieved by hyperflexion of the lumbar spine. With sustained hyperflexion of the lumbar spine, all neurologic deficits were completely resolved within 5 days. Lumbar lordosis may be present when a patient lies in the supine position on a flat bed with the hips and knees extended; this may exacerbate dural constriction caused by an epidural clot following posterior lumbar spinal surgery.
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ranking = 0.99833124768326
keywords = decompressive
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9/74. Anastomosis between the two facial nerves.

    A case of traumatic facial palsy incurred during the removal of an acoustic neuroma via a sub-occipital craniectomy is presented. The palsy was rehabilitated to a satisfactory degree by anastomosing the normal to the paralyzed facial nerve using an autoplastic peripheral nerve graft of suitable length to join the two.
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keywords = craniectomy
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10/74. Neurologic deficits after cervical laminectomy in the prone position.

    New neurologic deficits are known to occur after spine surgery. We present four patients with cervical myeloradiculopathy who underwent cervical laminectomy, fusion, or both in the prone position, supported by chest rolls. Three patients were intubated and positioned while awake, whereas the fourth patient was positioned after induction. Surgeries were successfully carried out, except for transient episodes of relative hypotension intraoperatively. On recovery from anesthesia, all patients were noted to have new neurologic deficits. Immediate CT myelography or surgical reexploration was unremarkable. All patients improved gradually with administration of high-dose steroids and induction of hypertension. Use of the prone position with abdominal compression may compromise spinal cord perfusion and lead to spinal cord ischemia. The use of frames that prevent abdominal compression, as well as avoidance of perioperative arterial hypotension, is important in maintaining adequate spinal cord perfusion during and after decompressive spinal cord surgery.
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ranking = 0.99833124768326
keywords = decompressive
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