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21/179. Lipoinjection augmentation of the soft palate for velopharyngeal stress incompetence.

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Velopharyngeal stress incompetence in professional musicians is an uncommon but potentially career-ending problem. Pharyngeal flaps, V-Y palatal pushback procedures, Teflon or collagen injection of the posterior pharyngeal wall, and speech therapy have all been used to address this problem. The ideal procedure for this subset of patients with velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI) with high-pressure, mild VPI would be one that combines low morbidity and an expedient recovery for the busy musician. We describe an approach of endoscopically assisted autologous lipoinjection of the soft palate. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of our experience treating high-pressure stress VPI in two professional musicians. methods: literature review and retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Two musicians underwent autologous lipoinjection of the soft palate for stress VPI. patients resumed full play within 2 weeks of the operation with no serious complications. There has been no recurrence of the VPI after 18 and 12 months of follow-up, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Velopharyngeal stress incompetence in musicians is an uncommon disorder. Velopharyngeal incompetence in these patients may not present as in a typical manner with hypernasality but may go undiagnosed for years mistakenly rationalized as a declining performance ability rather than a curable structural problem. The performance demands of professional musicians necessitate a timely solution to their VPI. More precise and limited contouring of palatal bulk can be achieved through the lipoinjection technique than compared with traditional palatal V-Y pushback or a standard pharyngeal flap. Lipoinjection of the palate can be performed as an outpatient procedure with only minor discomfort and an expedient recovery for the career musician.
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ranking = 1
keywords = speech
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22/179. Somatotopy of the supplementary motor area: evidence from correlation of the extent of surgical resection with the clinical patterns of deficit.

    OBJECTIVE: This study, which aimed to confirm or invalidate the somatotopic organization of the supplementary motor area (SMA), correlates the pattern of clinical symptoms observed after SMA removal with the extent of resection. methods: Eleven patients with medial precentral glioma underwent partial or complete tumoral resection of the SMA. Seven patients underwent preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging that incorporated speech and motor tasks. During the operation, the primary motor and speech areas and pathways (in the dominant side) were identified by use of intraoperative direct cortical or subcortical stimulation, and these areas were respected. RESULTS: SMA resection resulted in motor deficits, language deficits, or both; the deficits were always regressive, and they corresponded to the SMA syndrome. The topography and severity of these deficits were correlated to the extent of the SMA resection. The location of the deficit corresponded to SMA somatotopy: the representations of the lower limb, the upper limb, the face, and language (in the left-dominant SMA) were located from posterior to anterior. This somatotopy was also observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging. CONCLUSION: Correlation between clinical patterns of deficit and the extent of SMA resection, guided by means of pre- and intraoperative functional methods, provides strong arguments in favor of somatotopy in this area. This knowledge should allow clinicians to base preoperative predictions of the pattern of postsurgical deficit and recovery on the planned resection, thus allowing them to inform patients accurately before the procedure.
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ranking = 2
keywords = speech
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23/179. Cerebellar mutism associated with a midbrain cavernous malformation. Case report and review of the literature.

    The authors report a case of cerebellar mutism arising from a hemorrhagic midbrain cavernous malformation in a 14-year-old boy. No cerebellar lesion was identified; however, edema of the dorsal midbrain was noted on postoperative magnetic resonance images. Dysarthric speech spontaneously returned and then completely resolved to normal speech. This case provides further evidence for the theory that involvement of the dentatothalamic tracts, and not a cerebellar lesion per se, is the underlying cause of "cerebellar" mutism.
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ranking = 2
keywords = speech
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24/179. Minimally invasive functional reconstruction after extended oropharyngeal resection including soft palate and base of tongue using a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap.

    Excision of large oropharyngeal carcinomas that affect the base of the tongue and the soft palate severely impairs swallowing and articulation. In the present study we describe a minimally invasive technique that effectively restores swallowing and articulation by the insertion of a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap with a bilobular skin island. One lobe of the skin island is used to reconstruct the base of the tongue and the other to reconstruct the oropharynx. The soft palate is reconstructed by folding the tip of the lobe that is used to reconstruct the oropharynx in half along the long axis to fill the rhinopharynx. We have done this procedure for 13 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma. Six months postoperatively all 13 were able to swallow without aspiration. Nine of the 13 patients were able to hold a normal conversation, but the remaining four had severe rhinolalia aperta. However, this condition was easily corrected by secondary reconstruction using a pharyngeal flap and a palatal mucoperiosteal flap (n = 3) or by the use of a small speech aid (n = 1).
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ranking = 1
keywords = speech
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25/179. Seoul-type keratoprosthesis: preliminary results of the first 7 human cases.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a newly designed Seoul-type keratoprosthesis (S-KPro). methods: The S-KPro, which consists of a polymethyl methacrylate optic, a skirt (polyurethane or polypropylene), and polypropylene haptics, was developed and implanted into 2 unsighted and 5 sighted eyes of 7 patients. One patient had a chemical burn, another had an ocular pemphigoid, and the remainder were diagnosed as having stevens-johnson syndrome. The preoperative visual acuities ranged from light perception to hand motions. The average follow-up time was 25.6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated anatomical stability, visual acuity, retinal status, and the visual field. RESULTS: At the last follow-up visit, the S-KPro was well placed in 6 patients. The best-corrected visual acuities of the sighted patients ranged from 20/100 to 20/60 in the affected eye. One patient each experienced retinal detachment or endophthalmitis. Partial extrusion was found in the patient with glaucoma. A retroprosthetic membrane was detected in 1 patient and was treated with an Nd:YAG laser. No glaucomatous visual field defects were found in any of the sighted patients. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomical success was achieved in 6 of 7 eyes. In 3 of the 5 sighted eyes, the S-KPro could rehabilitate corneal blindness not correctable with keratoplasty.
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ranking = 0.88552596302811
keywords = perception
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26/179. Visual deficits in a patient with 'kaleidoscopic disintegration of the visual world'.

    We describe psychophysical, neuropsychological and neuro-ophthalmological studies of visual abilities in a patient who, following a right hemisphere stroke, had difficulty in combining parts of objects into a whole and in reading. Strikingly, her perceptual problems were accentuated when the objects moved or when she moved. Formal testing showed that her main deficits were in depth perception, various tasks of motion and object recognition of degraded stimuli. But low-level detection and discrimination of form and color were normal. Despite her deficits in visual motion and degraded static-object recognition, her visual recognition of 'biological motion' stimuli was normal. Structural magnetic resonance imaging revealed an infarct in the ventro-medial occipito-temporal region, extending ventro-laterally and leading to a 'kaleidoscopic disintegration of visible objects'.
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ranking = 3.0029979149437
keywords = discrimination, perception
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27/179. Dissociation of affective modulation of recollective and perceptual experience following amygdala damage.

    It has been suggested that similar neural mechanisms may underlie the affective modulation of both recollective and perceptual experience. A case is reported of a patient who has bilateral amygdala damage and marked impairment in the perception of emotion, particularly fear. The patient DR and 10 healthy control subjects (matched for school leaving age, intelligence quotient, and non-emotional memory performance) were shown a series of slides accompanied by an emotionally arousing narrative. One week later DR and the controls were given a surprise memory test for this material. In addition, they completed a verbal memory test using emotionally arousing stimuli. Both DR and the healthy control subjects showed a normative pattern of enhanced memory for emotional material. On the basis of these results and the previously demonstrated impairment of perception of emotion in this patient, it is concluded that different neural mechanisms may underlie affective modulation of recollective and perceptual experience.
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ranking = 1.7710519260562
keywords = perception
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28/179. nitrous oxide anesthesia and intravitreal gastamponade.

    The right eye of a 66-year-old man was operated with vitrectomy and peeling of an epiretinal membrane. Perioperatively, the eye was filled with 20% SF6 gas to tamponade retinal breaks. Five days later the patient underwent prostatectomy under general anesthesia using nitrous oxide. Postoperatively the eye had no light perception as a result of ischemic retinopathy. The movement of nitrous oxide into gas-containing spaces in the body has been known for a long time. The use of nitrous oxide in patients with intravitreal gas will elevate the intraocular pressure with risk for closure of the central retinal artery. The present case report highlights the problems that can occur when preoperative assessment is carried out a long time before surgery.
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ranking = 0.88552596302811
keywords = perception
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29/179. Management of the late leaking filtration blebs. A report of seven cases and a selective review of the literature.

    PURPOSE: To describe the outcome of various treatment modalities in the management of late bleb leaks after glaucoma filtering surgery (GFS). MATERIALS AND methods: Seven consecutive patients treated for late bleb leaks (Seidel's positive) between July 1990 and June 1999 were were enrolled in the study. The management strategy consisted of initial conservative therapy, and tailored surgery, if necessary. The surgical technique employed was either conjunctival-Tenon's advancement flap, hinged scleral flap, or fistulectomy with direct suturing. The main outcome measures were bleb characteristics and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP). The secondary outcome measure was visual acuity. RESULTS: One patient responded to conservative therapy (aqueous suppressants, bandage contact lens) and six patients needed surgery. The successful surgical technique was conjunctivo-Tenon's advancement flap in three, hinged scleral flap in two, and fistulectomy-direct suturing to the wound (combined with cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation) in one patient. The bleb leak stopped in all cases and 5 of the 6 surgical patients sustained functioning filtering blebs. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 56 months (mean = 20.4 /- 16.2 months). visual acuity improved to 6/12 or better in 4 cases, 6/36 in 2 cases and it remained at light perception in one case. None of the patients had any intraoperative or postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Late leaking blebs after GFS can be treated successfully. The management decision and selection of surgical technique should be based on the clinical condition.
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ranking = 0.88552596302811
keywords = perception
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30/179. Persistently altered visceral perception after resection of an esophageal granular cell myoblastoma: a therapeutic concept revisited.

    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and usually benign gastrointestinal tumors. Their most frequent symptoms are dysphagia and epigastric or retrosternal discomfort. We here report a case of esophageal GCT with continued symptoms of retrosternal discomfort, postprandial feeling of fullness, and early satiety despite complete thoracoscopic resection of the tumor. In contrast, all functional tests were in the normal range. We thus suggest that, due to their neuroectodermal origin, GCTs may affect neuronal alterations leading to a persistently disturbed visceral mechanosensory perception. Consequently, this case also cautions the therapeutic concept to solely relieve GCT symptoms by resection if the tumor is less than 20 mm in diameter.
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ranking = 4.4276298151405
keywords = perception
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