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1/1487. akinetic mutism after fourth ventricle choroid plexus papilloma: treatment with a dopamine agonist.

    BACKGROUND: akinetic mutism is a behavioral state wherein a patient seems to be awake but does not move or speak. Several patients are reported to have developed mutism after posterior fossa surgery. We present a patient who developed akinetic mutism after total excision of a choroid plexus papilloma of the fourth ventricle, and who was treated with bromocriptine. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-year-old woman was admitted with akinetic mutism, which had developed 6 days after posterior fossa surgery. She had had no neurologic deficit in the first 5 days after surgery and could communicate with her family. Despite antioedematous therapy and daily lumbar punctures to drain cerebrospinal fluid, there was no clinical improvement after she entered the akinetic mute state. brain magnetic resonance revealed ventriculomegaly; brain single photon emission computed tomography revealed bilateral reduction of perfusion in the frontal region. Because daily lumbar drainage did not result in clinical improvement, shunt placement was not considered. bromocriptine therapy was begun at a dose of 2x2.5 mg; 24 hours later, the patient started to speak and move her upper extremities. Further improvement occurred over the following week when the dose was increased to 3x2.5 mg. bromocriptine was replaced with a placebo to determine whether the neurologic improvement was caused by the medicine. The patient's neurologic status deteriorated progressively; therefore, bromocriptine was restarted and she was discharged from the hospital. During the 6 months of follow-up, the patient has remained in good health. CONCLUSIONS: The etiology of akinetic mutism is not clear. Monoaminergic pathways, particularly dopaminergic cell groups, are most probably involved in this syndrome, because bromocriptine has a dramatic effect on these patients, as demonstrated in our case.
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2/1487. Fatal cardiac ischaemia associated with prolonged desflurane anaesthesia and administration of exogenous catecholamines.

    PURPOSE: Four cardiac ischaemic events are reported during and after prolonged anaesthesia with desflurane. CLINICAL FEATURES: We have evaluated desflurane in 21 consecutive patients undergoing advanced head and neck reconstructive surgery. Four deaths occurred which were associated with cardiac ischaemic syndromes either during or immediately after operation. All patients in the study received a similar anaesthetic. This comprised induction with propofol and maintenance with alfentanil and desflurane in oxygen-enriched air. Inotropic support (either dopamine or dobutamine in low dose, 5 micrograms.kg.min-1) was provided as part of the anaesthetic technique in all patients. Critical cardiovascular incidents were observed in each of the four patients during surgery. These were either sudden bradycardia or tachycardia associated with ST-segment electrocardiographic changes. The four patients who died had a documented past history of coronary heart disease and were classified American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II or III. One patient (#2) did not survive anaesthesia and surgery and the three others died on the first, second and twelfth postoperative days. Enzyme increases (CK/CK-MB) were available in three patients and confirmed myocardial ischaemia. CONCLUSION: These cases represent an unexpected increase in the immediate postoperative mortality for these types of patients and this anaesthetic sequence.
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3/1487. Contralateral deafness following unilateral suboccipital brain tumor surgery in a patient with large vestibular aqueduct--case report.

    A 68-year-old female developed contralateral deafness following extirpation of a left cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst. Computed tomography showed that large vestibular aqueduct was present. This unusual complication may have been caused by an abrupt pressure change after cerebrospinal fluid release, which was transmitted through the large vestibular aqueduct and resulted in cochlear damage.
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4/1487. Isolated tuberculosis of the pancreas after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    A patient presented with intermittent high fever, upper abdominal pain, and loss of appetite 9 months after an orthotopic liver transplantation. Computed tomography showed a large mass in the pancreas that was confirmed at laparotomy. Pathological examination of the pancreatic biopsy specimen showed several chronic granulomatous lesions with caseating necrosis. Two and one half months after beginning antituberculous treatment, there was an important reduction of the pancreatic mass.
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5/1487. Bochdalek hernia in adulthood: a case report and review of recent literature.

    A 37-year-old Filipino woman presented with a post road-traffic accident fracture of dorsal spine 12. Chest radiograph revealed evidence of loops of small bowel in the left lung field. She admitted to symptoms of respiratory insufficiency since birth and treatment for tuberculosis in childhood. A pre-operative diagnosis of left traumatic diaphragmatic hernia was not confirmed at laparotomy which revealed typical left congenital Bochdalek hernia with smooth edges and herniation of small bowel and spleen into the left pleural cavity. Following reduction and repair of the hernia, the patient made an uneventful recovery. Chest radiograph remains normal till now, eight years post-operatively.
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6/1487. Directional coronary atherectomy in acute myocardial infarction.

    To date, application of directional coronary atherectomy (DCA) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has had limited reports. In eleven patients with AMI, DCA was applied. In three of these patients, DCA was used as a stand-alone procedure without use of thrombolytic agents. In each case a guidewire was placed across the stenosis, and in eight patients balloon angioplasty was utilized as a predilating modality prior to DCA. The thrombolytic agent urokinase was utilized in five of these eight patients, either before, during, or after angioplasty and/or DCA. DCA success (defined as ability to cross the lesion, reduction of less than or equal to 20% in stenosis and thrombolysis--when a thrombus is present) was achieved in 10 of 11 patients. One patient had persistent abrupt reclosure of an LAD lesion, accompanied by hemodynamic compromise, necessitating intra-aortic balloon pump insertion and subsequent emergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Final angiograms revealed residual stenoses less than or equal to 20%, and adequate thrombolysis. Significant cardiac events were limited to one emergent CABG, Q wave MI in four patients, and non-Q wave MI in two patients. Clinically all eleven patients improved, survived the AMI/CABG, and were discharged. This clinical experience demonstrates the feasibility and safety of DCA application in selected patients who experience acute myocardial infarction.
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7/1487. Sideswipe elbow fractures.

    A retrospective review of all cases of sideswipe elbow fractures (SSEFs) treated at two community hospitals from 1982 to 1992 was conducted to determine the functional outcome of the operative treatment of SSEFs. All five injuries involved the left elbow, and they included open fractures of the olecranon, the radius and ulna, the ulna and humerus, the humerus, and traumatic amputation of the arm. Concomitant injuries included three radial nerve palsies and two injuries each to the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and brachial artery. Treatment included irrigation, debridement (repeated if necessary), open reduction and internal fixation, external fixation (one case), and delayed amputation (one case). An average of 130/-10 degrees elbow flexion/extension, and 60/60 degrees supination/pronation was obtained for the three of four patients with reconstructions who returned for follow-up.
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ranking = 2
keywords = duct
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8/1487. A new, safer lasing technique for laser-facilitated coronary angioplasty.

    in vitro studies during cold pulsed-wave laser angioplasty have demonstrated production of gas bubbles within the target tissue, creation of shock wave and formation of multi-layer dissections accompanied by an increase in the plaque and vessel wall temperature. These processes account for certain complications of coronary lasing, including acute vessel closure, dissections, spasm, and even perforation. The traditional lasing technique in which a large number of pulses is continually emitted across the lesion, may in fact contribute to the development and acceleration of the above mentioned processes. To overcome the shortcomings we have developed a new, safe lasing technique that consists of multiple trains of a small number of pulses each. Between laser sessions the laser catheter is retracted into the guiding catheter and nitroglycerin is injected intracoronary, thus providing time for dispersion of produced gas bubbles, cooling of the target artery, and adequate coronary vasodilatation. This new technique results in a significant reduction of laser associated complications.
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9/1487. skin conductance responses in paediatric Harlequin syndrome.

    We report a novel and simple application of skin conductance response (SCR) testing for diagnosis of a new-onset iatrogenic Harlequin syndrome in an infant. Isolated ipsilateral facial pallor, complicated by thermally induced systemic sympathetic vasodilatation, and preferential lateral decubitus positioning, mimics harlequin colour change. Correct diagnosis as Harlequin syndrome with facial sympathetic interruption was demonstrated by diminution of SCR.
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ranking = 5
keywords = duct
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10/1487. Prevention of ischemic damage using controlled limb reperfusion.

    Following prolonged limb ischemia, a reperfusion injury may occur with the reintroduction of unmodified blood, resulting in tissue loss and, in severe cases, limb loss. We have shown that the reperfusion injury in the heart can be minimized by using controlled reperfusion with a substrate-enriched cardioplegia solution prior to restoring normal blood flow. This article describes two clinical cases in which we used controlled reperfusion in an ischemic limb to prevent limb loss. It demonstrates that a controlled, substrate-enhanced, hypocalcemic, leukodepleted, modified blood reperfusate solution can minimize limb reperfusion damage and improve functional recovery. This preliminary experience is presented to familiarize surgeons with this form of treatment and to describe the solutions and method of administration that can be used to avoid the devastating complications of severe limb ischemia.
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