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1/1224. Anatomical and embryological considerations in the repair of a large vertex cephalocele. Case report.

    The case of a neonate with a large vertex cephalocele is presented. The anatomical features of this anomaly were evaluated by means of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Fusion of the thalami, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and failure of adequate formation of the interhemispheric fissure were characteristics of the major cerebral anomalies associated with the cephalocele. The absence of a falx in the midline, a split configuration of the superior sagittal sinus, and a dysgenetic tentorium with a concomitant abnormal venous drainage pattern were found in association with a large dorsal cyst. Repair of the anomaly was undertaken on the 3rd postnatal day. A cerebrospinal fluid shunt was required to treat hydrocephalus on Day 30. The child is well at age 3 years, but with significant developmental delay. The pathogenesis of this vertex cephalocele relates to semilobar holoprosencephaly and dorsal cyst formation. In addition, a disturbance in the separation of the diencephalic portion of the neural tube from the surface ectoderm or skin during the final phases of neurulation had occurred to help create the large cephalocele. Detailed preoperative imaging studies and awareness of the embryology and anatomy of this lesion facilitated the repair of the cephalocele. The prognosis of the child is determined not only by the presence of hydrocephalus, but also by the number of associated major cerebral anomalies. Options for treatment are discussed.
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2/1224. thrombosis of mitral valve prosthesis presenting as abdominal pain.

    A 67-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain, anemia, and leukocytosis. Five years previously, the patient had undergone mitral valve replacement with a St. Jude bileaflet mechanical prosthesis. After her admission, echocardiography confirmed an immobile leaflet of the prosthetic valve. At urgent surgery, thrombosis and pannus, obstructing the disc, were found, and the mechanical valve was replaced with a bioprosthesis. The incidence of mitral valve thrombosis is low, ranging from 0.1% to 5.7% per patient per year. patients who receive inadequate anticoagulation, particularly with valve prostheses in the mitral position, have an increased risk for thrombus or pannus formation. Presentation varies, from symptoms of congestive heart failure or systemic embolization, to fever or no symptoms. New or worsening symptoms in a patient with a prosthetic heart valve should raise concerns about prosthetic dysfunction. Aggressive investigation and, if indicated, urgent or emergency surgery for treatment can be lifesaving.
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3/1224. Intraoperative left ventricular perforation with false aneurysm formation.

    Two cases of perforation of the left ventricle during mitral valve replacement are described. In the first case there was perforation at the site of papillary muscle excision and this was recognized and successfully treated. However, a true ventricular aneurysm developed at the repair site. One month after operation rupture of the left ventricle occurred at a second and separate site on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring. This resulted in a false aneurysm which produced a pansystolic murmur mimicking mitral regurgitation. Both the true and the false aneurysm were successfully repaired. In the second case perforation occurred on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring and was successfully repaired. However, a false ventricular aneurysm developed and ruptured into the left atrium producing severe, but silent, mitral regurgitation. This was recognized and successfully repaired. The implications of these cases are discussed.
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4/1224. The challenge of arteriovenous fistula formation following disk surgery: a collective review.

    Five cases of arteriovenous fistula formation are added to the 68 found in previous reports. A review of the English-language literature revealed that the L4-5 disk space was most frequently involved, the right common iliac artery injured most often, and the right and left common iliac veins and inferior vena cava injured with similar frequency.
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ranking = 2.5
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5/1224. A new, safer lasing technique for laser-facilitated coronary angioplasty.

    in vitro studies during cold pulsed-wave laser angioplasty have demonstrated production of gas bubbles within the target tissue, creation of shock wave and formation of multi-layer dissections accompanied by an increase in the plaque and vessel wall temperature. These processes account for certain complications of coronary lasing, including acute vessel closure, dissections, spasm, and even perforation. The traditional lasing technique in which a large number of pulses is continually emitted across the lesion, may in fact contribute to the development and acceleration of the above mentioned processes. To overcome the shortcomings we have developed a new, safe lasing technique that consists of multiple trains of a small number of pulses each. Between laser sessions the laser catheter is retracted into the guiding catheter and nitroglycerin is injected intracoronary, thus providing time for dispersion of produced gas bubbles, cooling of the target artery, and adequate coronary vasodilatation. This new technique results in a significant reduction of laser associated complications.
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6/1224. Damus-Kaye-Stansel connections in children with previously transected pulmonary arteries.

    BACKGROUND: In patients with a univentricular arteriovenous connection, transection of the main pulmonary artery may be performed as part of a bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt or fontan procedure. The proximal stump of the pulmonary artery may remain in the systemic circulation. In cases with a discordant ventriculoarterial connection, subsequent restriction of the bulboventricular foramen may lead to subaortic stenosis. The subaortic stenosis can be corrected in some patients by directing the systemic flow through a combined nonobstructed aortopulmonary outlet, as in the Damus-Kaye-Stansel connection. Previous closure of the pulmonary artery has been considered by some investigators to be a relative contraindication to the Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure, unless an allograft root can be added to the circuit after excision of the closed pulmonary stump. methods: Three patients with previously transected pulmonary arteries underwent a modified Damus-Kaye-Stansel connection using the native pulmonary valve and the proximal pulmonary artery stump. RESULTS: The native pulmonary valves have functioned well despite thrombus formation in the proximal stump in 2 patients before Damus conversion. All 3 patients are alive and well after 108, 19, and 3 months, with competent nonobstructed ventriculoarterial connections. CONCLUSIONS: If transection and closure of the pulmonary artery as part of a previous palliation has spared the pulmonary valve, then the native pulmonary outlet might be used for a safe Damus-Kaye-Stansel connection.
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7/1224. A case of cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia associated with shunt malfunction.

    A 3-month-old female patient presented with a meningomyelocele at the lumber region associated with congenital hydrocephalus. She underwent ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt surgery using the Sophy system. The shunt system was replaced due to a malformation. Following replacement, the patient presented with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia at the age of 8 months. The eosinophilic granulocytosis of the CSF improved dramatically following systemic prednisolone administration. CSF eosinophilia without accompanying inflammation or pyrexia in the present case may have resulted from an allergic response to a foreign material such as the silicone tube pressure valve of the Sophy system or the sutures rather than bacterial or fungal infection. Based on our results, we believe that some patients may experience CSF eosinophilia following postoperative V-P shunt due to an allergic reaction to the shunt equipment. Prompt steroid treatment can produce spontaneous regression in such cases.
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keywords = formation
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8/1224. Negative pressure pulmonary hemorrhage.

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema, a well-recognized phenomenon, is the formation of pulmonary edema following an acute upper airway obstruction (UAO). To our knowledge, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage has not been reported previously as a complication of an UAO. We describe a case of negative pressure pulmonary hemorrhage, and we propose that its etiology is stress failure, the mechanical disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane.
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9/1224. Cystic hematoma formation following use of a biodegradable arrow for meniscal repair.

    This is a case report of a cystic hematoma formation following the use of a biodegradable arrow for repair of a medial meniscus tear. A literature search found no previous report of this complication. Open hematoma debridement and arrow removal were effective in the treatment of this complication following all-inside meniscal repair with a biodegradable arrow.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = formation
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10/1224. Three ventriculoplasty techniques applied to three left-ventricular pseudoaneurysms in the same patient.

    A 59-year-old male patient underwent surgery for triple-vessel coronary artery disease and left-ventricular aneurysm in 1994. Four months after coronary artery bypass grafting and classical left-ventricular aneurysmectomy (with Teflon felt strips), a left-ventricular pseudoaneurysm developed due to infection, and this was treated surgically with an autologous glutaraldehyde-treated pericardium patch over which an omental pedicle graft was placed. Two months later, under emergent conditions, re-repair was performed with a diaphragmatic pericardial pedicle graft due to pseudoaneurysm reformation and rupture. A 3rd repair was required in a 3rd episode 8 months later. Sternocostal resection enabled implantation of the left pectoralis major muscle into the ventricular defect. Six months after the last surgical intervention, the patient died of cerebral malignancy. Pseudoaneurysm reformation, however, had not been observed. To our knowledge, our case is the 1st reported in the literature in which there have been 3 or more different operative techniques applied to 3 or more distinct episodes of pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to post-aneurysmectomy infection. We propose that pectoral muscle flaps be strongly considered as a material for re-repair of left-ventricular aneurysms.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = formation
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