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1/108. Reactivation of herpes virus after surgery for epilepsy in a pediatric patient with mesial temporal sclerosis: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: This case report is presented to raise the awareness of the potential risk of reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis after intracranial surgery. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The case of an 8-year-old male patient who suffered a reactivation of HSV encephalitis after undergoing amygdalohippocampectomy for complex partial seizures is reported. This patient had previously contracted HSV 1 meningoencephalitis at the age of 16 months. Six years later, a left amygdalohippocampectomy was proposed after the development of intractable partial epilepsy associated with left mesial temporal lesions. During the postoperative period, the patient suffered severe clinical deterioration with partial status epilepticus, aphasia, and hyperthermia, which resolved after intensive antiepileptic treatment supported by acyclovir. CONCLUSION: We advise prophylactic pre-, peri-, and postoperative treatment with acyclovir for patients with known histories of HSV encephalitis who undergo intracranial procedures.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis, herpes, meningoencephalitis
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2/108. Post transplant CD8 gammadelta T-cell lymphoma associated with human herpes virus-6 infection.

    Gammadelta T-cell lymphoma is a rare T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder that has been reported in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. This report describes a forty eight year old patient who developed gammadelta T-cell lymphoma four years after undergoing living-related kidney transplantation. The lymphoma expressed CD2, CD3, CD7, CD8 and CD56, and the gammadelta T-cell receptor and did not express CD5, CD4 and the alphabeta T-cell receptor. In addition, HHV-6 was cultured from the patient's bone marrow, marking the first time that this virus has been associated with gammadelta T-cell lymphoma. Since all patients with gammadelta T-cell lymphoma described to date have responded poorly to standard combination chemotherapies, the patient was treated with the purine analogue 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine. While he responded transiently to treatment, long term remission was not achieved indicating that additional therapeutic approches still need to be developed, for the management of this disorder.
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ranking = 0.27725962141357
keywords = herpes
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3/108. Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection in a renal transplant patient as possible cause of repeated urinary extravasations.

    Disseminated herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections are infrequent in patients receiving organ transplants, but usually have a poor outcome. We describe the case of a renal transplant patient who developed a disseminated HSV-2 infection with repeated urinary extravasations. The diagnosis was carried out using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction nested assay and it suggested HSV-2 as a possible cause of repeated urinary fistulas.
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ranking = 0.34657452676696
keywords = herpes
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4/108. herpes simplex encephalitis after brain surgery: case report and review of the literature.

    Intracranial infection after neurosurgical intervention most often is caused by bacteria. A rare case of fatal herpes simplex encephalitis after removal of a meningioma is described and similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed. Recent diagnostic tools, including detection of herpes viral dna sequences by polymerase chain reaction, complement clinical suspicion and facilitate mandatory early diagnosis, because herpes encephalitis, without rapid initiation of treatment, may lead to severe disability or death.
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ranking = 1.1548394537542
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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5/108. Encephalopathy associated with human herpesvirus 6 in a liver transplant recipient.

    Recent reports have documented human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) as a cause of high fever, bone marrow depression, and rash in liver transplant recipients in the absence of another known pathogen. We describe a 49-year-old liver transplant recipient who developed confusion, occipital headache, and involuntary movements of the limbs 3 weeks after orthotopic liver transplantation. HHV-6 was detected in the peripheral blood using a rapid culture assay. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction for HHV-6 was also positive. No other pathogens were identified. The patient improved after commencement of intravenous ganciclovir therapy. This case suggests HHV-6 needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained confusion in liver transplant recipients.
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ranking = 3.2811005861648
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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6/108. Posttransplantation plasmacytic proliferations related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), which was originally detected in Kaposi's sarcoma, also has been found in primary effusion lymphomas (PELs) and some cases of multicentric Castleman's disease. We describe two transplant recipients who developed Kaposi's sarcoma and a spectrum of non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative disorders that show pronounced plasmacytic and plasmacytoid features. The first patient had recurrent pleural effusions and Castleman's disease-like changes in lymph nodes. The second patient had systemic lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly secondary to diffuse infiltration by polyclonal plasma cells and plasmacytoid B lymphocytes that clinically mimicked Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. In both cases, KSHV dna was detected by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting, and KSHV vIL-6 protein expression was identified in affected tissues by immunohistochemical localization. In contrast, no evidence of KSHV coinfection was detected in any of 31 EBV-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders or 112 non-PEL lymphomas tested. The pathologic findings in these two patients were not representative of malignancy by morphologic, immunophenotypic, or molecular criteria. This study underscores the marked propensity for hematolymphoid proliferations associated with KSHV infections to show plasmacytic features. Additionally, this study describes use of an antibody reactive against KSHV vIL-6 that can readily detect a subpopulation of KSHV-infected hematopoietic cells.
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ranking = 1.0318102610302
keywords = herpesvirus, herpes
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7/108. Denovo development of corneal guttae and Fuchs' dystrophy in corneal grafts.

    PURPOSE: To describe two cases of de novo development of corneal guttae and Fuchs' dystrophy in donor tissue following penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for unrelated conditions. methods: Two patients underwent PK for keratoconus and a disciform scar secondary to herpes simplex virus. They were followed clinically for a period of 16 and 11 years, respectively. Specular microscopy was used in one patient. RESULTS: Corneal guttae were first noted 10 years and 4 years following transplantation in the first and second patient, respectively. In both cases, the corneal guttae gradually increased in number, involving the central and temporal portions of the corneal graft There were no corneal guttae present in the host corneal rim or contralateral cornea of either patient. CONCLUSIONS: These cases provide evidence to suggest that some corneas may be genetically predetermined to develop corneal guttae and Fuchs' dystrophy many years before any changes can be clinically detected.
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ranking = 0.069314905353393
keywords = herpes
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8/108. Delayed facial palsy after middle-ear surgery due to reactivation of varicella-zoster virus.

    Viral reactivation is thought to be an important cause of post-operative facial palsy of delayed onset. We present an unusual case of Ramsay-Hunt syndrome that occurred as a consequence of middle-ear surgery by triggering varicella-zoster virus reactivation. As a pathognomonic auricular eruption was not seen, the patient was initially misdiagnosed as iatrogenic facial palsy. Clinical features, diagnosis and management are discussed.
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ranking = 0.21558503728268
keywords = zoster, varicella
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9/108. Functional hemispherectomy: radical treatment for Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a progressive, debilitating disease that usually appears in the pediatric population but also may affect adults. Uncontrolled seizures, cognitive decline, and a progressive hemiparesis accompany this disorder. Treatment options are limited and consist of medical management, which is somewhat experimental and ineffective; the use of either intravenous antiviral agents or steroids; or surgical resection of the affected hemisphere. patients undergoing hemispherectomy for Rasmussen's encephalitis are complex. nurses caring for these patients require a high degree of knowledge and specialized skills. Patient outcome is highly affected by the knowledge and skill of the entire team of healthcare professionals needed to manage these patients.
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ranking = 0.94689473769399
keywords = encephalitis
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10/108. Molecular evidence of organ-related transmission of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or human herpesvirus-8 in transplant patients.

    In transplant patients, Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection is associated with the development of KS, primary effusion lymphoma and Castleman disease. Whether HHV-8 is either reactivated in the recipient or transmitted by the donor has been investigated so far only by serologic studies. Thus, we addressed the issue of HHV-8 transmission in the transplantation setting by molecular methods. We exploited the high level variability of the orf-K1 gene and the polymorphism of the orf-73 gene of the HHV-8 genome to assess the genetic relatedness of the HHV-8 strains identified in the posttransplant KS lesions that developed, simultaneously, 20 months after transplantation, in 2 recipients of twin kidneys from the same cadaver donor. The 100% identity of nucleotide sequence of the most variable viral region and the presence of the same, single orf-73 type in both patients provides strong molecular evidence of organ-related transmission of HHV-8 in the setting of transplantation.
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ranking = 4.3129108471949
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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