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11/514. Management of ureteric obstruction in the solitary kidney by a segmental suspended ureteric prosthesis.

    Ureteric obstruction of a single kidney, secondary to an aorto-iliac bypass graft, was treated with a suspended segmentary ureteric prosthesis. No urinary stasis was observed during 1 year and the urodynamic implication are discussed.
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12/514. Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma in a kidney transplant patient.

    Organ transplant recipients are prone to develop a variety of malignancies, most of which are encountered uncommonly in the general population. Approximately 5% to 7% of these malignancies are sarcomas, of which most are Kaposi's sarcomas. Ewing's sarcoma is an extremely uncommon tumor in organ transplant recipients, and only one case of skeletal Ewing's sarcoma has been reported in the transplant literature. We present a case of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) in a renal transplant patient.
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13/514. Pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery with an arteriovenous fistula after simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation.

    Vascular complications remain a significant source of morbidity after pancreatic transplantation. We describe a pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) involving the SMA and the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) discovered and treated surgically in the second week after kidney pancreas transplantation. The patient experienced pain over the graft, and subsequent radionuclide and Doppler ultrasound scan were suggestive of a pseudoaneurysm in the head of the pancreas. Awaiting confirmatory angiography, the patient became hypotensive and after resuscitation, underwent emergency surgery when a pseudoaneurysm was found in the head of the pancreas. After looping the proximal and distal recipient iliac artery and base of the donor Y vascular graft, the AVF was separated and ligated. The SMV was dissected off the pancreatic head and repaired over a tamponading intraluminal Foley catheter. Graft function was preserved. Based on this experience, an AVF with or without a pseudoaneurysm in the pancreas allograft should be corrected as soon it is suspected.
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14/514. Massive T wave changes following a combined kidney and liver transplant in a young female with cirrhosis.

    We report the case of a young female with PSC-associated cirrhosis and chronic renal failure who developed clinical and electrocardiographic signs consistent with acute myocardial infarction after a combined kidney and liver transplant. Cardiac investigations at that time were negative and she is currently asymptomatic one year post-transplant with resolution of most of her ECG abnormalities. Although the cause of her symptoms and ECG abnormalities is not immediately apparent, this case illustrates the difficulties in interpreting abnormal cardiac investigations in transplanted patients with liver cirrhosis who may have a background of subclinical cardiac disease.
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15/514. Spontaneous renal allograft rupture attributed to acute tubular necrosis.

    A renal allograft recipient receiving triple immunosuppressive therapy developed spontaneous allograft rupture 5 days after her second cadaveric renal transplantation. Renal biopsy showed interstitial edema with severe acute tubular necrosis (ATN). There was no evidence of acute rejection or renal vein thrombosis. The ruptured renal graft was salvaged by an aggressive fluid resuscitation therapy and surgical hemostasis. The renal function was satisfactory on discharge. We conclude that renal allograft rupture can be the result of interstitial edema solely attributed to ATN in the absence of graft rejection. The ruptured graft kidney is potentially salvageable for those patients whose hemodynamic status can be stabilized by appropriate supportive therapy.
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16/514. Kaposi's sarcoma in renal transplant recipients: pathogenetic relation between the reduced density of langerhans cells and cyclosporin-A therapy.

    patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs can develop cancers. The authors present two cases of Kaposi's sarcoma in kidney transplant patients who had been treated with azathioprine, steroids and cyclosporin-A; during this treatment the langerhans cells decreased and Kaposi's sarcoma appeared. Discontinuation or reduction of the dosage of cyclosporin-A led to complete regression of the illness, and the langerhans cells reappeared. We suggest that cyclosporin-A damages the immunological function of the epidermal langerhans cells, and that this is the primary factor in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma.
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17/514. Abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy with left-sided inferior vena cava and transplanted kidney.

    Aortic aneurysmectomy was performed in a 43-year-old man with left-sided inferior vena cava (It-IVC) after renal transplantation 10 years before. In the admission examination chronic rejection was found histopathologically. For renal protection, a temporary heparin-coated shunt tube was used to maintain continuous blood flow to the transplanted kidney. The shunt was placed between the left brachial artery and the right external iliac artery, because there was no segment healthy enough for cannulation of the shunt tube and the It-IVC crossed over the aorta above the aneurysm. Aortic aneurysmectomy was performed without complications and perioperative renal function was satisfactorily maintained without progression of the chronic rejection.
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18/514. Malakoplakia of the caecum in a kidney-transplant recipient: presentation as acute tumoral perforation and fatal outcome.

    Malakoplakia is a rare pseudotumoral inflammatory disease known to affect immunocompromised subjects, mainly with a history of recurrent escherichia coli infection. The urinary tract is the most frequent site of the disease, although all organs can be involved. In the present article, we report a case of malakoplakia of the caecum, that developed in a 52-year-old man, who had received a kidney transplant 9 years before and had a history of recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections. Malakoplakia presented as acute intestinal perforation, and, despite aggressive surgical and medical management, disease progressed toward a fatal outcome due to sepsis and multiple organ failure 9 months later. A defect in the macrophagic activity was demonstrated.
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19/514. Septic shock after liver transplantation for Caroli's disease: clinical improvement after treatment with C1-esterase inhibitor.

    The extent of complement and contact activation is related to outcome in sepsis. A low functional index of their main blocker C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is considered as a relative deficiency of C1-INH and might contribute to the development of fatal complications in the intensive care unit. The first results of therapeutic intervention with C1-INH concentrate in septic shock are promising. We report on our experience of C1-INH concentrate administration in a young woman with Caroli's disease as ultimate rescue therapy for septic shock with capillary leakage syndrome after combined liver and kidney transplantation. No focus of infection was detectable and thus surgical intervention was not indicated. Antibiotic therapy at that time included vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem and fluconazol. Hemodynamic stabilization occurred within hours after administration of C1-INH concentrate. Simultaneously a reduction in vasopressor medication was possible and negative fluid balance was achieved.
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20/514. Successful intradialytic parenteral nutrition after abdominal "Catastrophes" in chronically hemodialysed patients.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the therapeutic contribution of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) in four acutely ill, hypercatabolic, hemodialysed patients. All underwent major surgery, complicated by infection and malnutrition. DESIGN: A retrospective clinical study. SETTING: An in-center hemodialysis unit, at a tertiary referral hospital. patients: Patient 1: a young woman, with a good renal transplant. Developed gastric lymphoma, which required gastrectomy. After cessation of immunosuppression, "lost" her kidney and returned to hemodialysis. Received IDPN for 4 months and recovered well from severe malnourishment. Patient 2: an elderly, malnourished man, on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Developed biliary peritonitis and bacteremia. In a 3-month period, the patient had four operations. Maintained on IDPN for 4 months. Patient 3: a young and obese man, who suffered from life-threatening staphylococcal aureus peritonitis, resulting in widespread bowel adhesions. Underwent repeated aspirations of purulent ascites, laparoscopy, and explorative laparotomy. IDPN was administered for 4 months and stopped on the patient's request. Patient 4: a young man, who after cadaveric renal transplantation remained hospitalized for 6 months because of acute rejection and peritoneal and retroperitoneal abscesses. Had major surgery performed seven times. Received IDPN for 6 months, and is now well. RESULTS: All four patients benefited from 4 to 6 months of IDPN, as an integral part of intensive supportive and nutritional treatment. weight loss was halted, as patient appetite returned and oral nutrition became adequate. Estimated daily protein intake reached 1.2 g/kg, while caloric intake rose to nearly 30 kcal/kg/d (Table 3). Mean serum albumin levels increased from 25.5 g/L /- 0.9 g/L to 38.0 g/L /- 1.5 g/L. No adverse side effects were seen from IDPN. CONCLUSION: IDPN is a worthwhile part of treatments used in the catabolic, postoperative hemodialysed patient. It is safe and efficient when used over a 6-month period in trying to attenuate existing, or worsening malnutrition in these patients. It should be commenced at an early stage in these patients, after attempts at oral nutritional support have been deemed inadequate.
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