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1/821. Three cases of patella fracture in 1,320 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft.

    Between September 1992 and December 1996 we reviewed three transverse displaced fractures of the patella occuring in 1,320 ACL reconstructions using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. All the patients suffered local injury to the donor knee between 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Immediate rigid fixation using single or double anterior tension band allowed early mobilization and full weight bearing. Between 6 and 9 months after fracture, the screws and the wire were removed and the grafts tested. Results of the pivot shift and Lachman test under anesthesia were negative and arthroscopic visualisation showed the graft to be intact. Postoperative assessment included the Lysholm and Tegner scales, the International knee documentation Committee Evaluation form (IKDC), KT-1000 arthrometer, and isokinetic dynamometer strength testing. No significant differences in the final outcome were noted between reconstructions complicated by patellar fracture and normal ACL reconstructions.
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2/821. scedosporium apiospermum sinusitis after bone marrow transplantation: report of a case.

    A forty-year-old man underwent an allogeneic BMT from his HLA identical sister. GvHD prophylaxis was done with cyclosporine (CyA), methotrexate and prednisone (PDN). On day 90 extensive GvHD was noted and higher doses of immunosuppressive drugs alternating CyA with PDN were initiated. Patient's follow-up was complicated by intermittent episodes of leukopenia and monthly episodes of sinusitis or pneumonia. One year after BMT, the patient developed hoarseness and nasal voice. No etiologic agent could be identified on a biopsy sample of the vocal chord. Upon tapering the doses of immunosuppressive drugs, the patient had worsening of chronic GvHD and was reintroduced on high doses of cyclosporine alternating with prednisone on day 550. Three months later, GvHD remained out of control and the patient was started on azathioprine. On day 700, hoarseness and nasal voice recurred. Another biopsy of the left vocal chord failed to demonstrate infection. Episodes of sinusitis became more frequent and azathioprine was withheld 3 months after it was started. One month later, the patient had bloody nasal discharge and surgical drainage of maxillary sinuses was performed. Histopathology showed hyphae and cultures grew scedosporium apiospermum. itraconazole 800 mg/day was initiated. The patient developed progressive respiratory failure and died 15 days later.
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3/821. Acoustic trauma from the bone cutting burr.

    The amplitudes of the stapes footplate movements were determined in human temporal bones when the ossicular chain was drilled with a cutting and a diamond burr. High movements result in comparison to physiological data. The frequency distribution resembles the dB (A) curve. The intensity compared to sound pressure levels on the ear drum is higher than I30 dB. The pressure is constant over the period of contact between the burr and the ossicle. Most likely these unphysiologic movements of the stapes footplate can cause inner ear damage as we had to admit in a case of facial nerve decompression.
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4/821. Unaccountable severe hypercalcemia in a patient treated for hypoparathyroidism with dihydrotachysterol.

    This report describes a forty-seven-year-old female patient with a complex medical history. She was suffering from an unspecified interstitial lung disease, papillary thyroid carcinoma which had been treated, hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy for which she was receiving dihydrotachysterol and calcium, and atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure as a result of mitral stenosis. Shortly after mitral valve replacement she developed a severe hypercalcemia (serum calcium 5.95 mmol/l) during a febrile illness. At that time anti-tuberculous agents were also being administered for presumed tuberculosis. The possible mechanisms for this severe elevation of the calcium level are discussed. immobilization, while Paget's bone disease was present, and perhaps enhanced activation of dihydrotachysterol by rifampicin, could have led to increased calcium-release into the circulation. Continuous supplecation of calcium and vitamin d, provoked dehydration and the mechanism of the milk-alkali syndrome also contributed to this extremely high calcium level. It is concluded that hypoparathyroid patients being treated with vitamin d and calcium should be carefully monitored in the case of an intercurrent illness or a change in medication.
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5/821. Alveolar soft part sarcoma involving the ilium. A case report.

    A report of alveolar soft part sarcoma of the hip region with extension to the ilium is presented to highlight an unusual presentation for this sarcoma and to discuss the treatment options for limb salvage for large malignant neoplasma involving the periacetabular region of the pelvis. A review of the literature for reports of alveolar soft part sarcoma extending to bone is presented.
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6/821. Salvage of contaminated fractures of the distal humerus with thin wire external fixation.

    Fractures and osteotomies of the distal humerus that are contaminated or infected represent a difficult management problem. Stable anatomic fixation with plates and screws, the acknowledged key to a good result in the treatment of bicondylar fractures, may be unwise. A thin wire circular (Ilizarov) external fixator was used as salvage treatment in such complex situations in five patients. The fixator allowed functional mobilization of the elbow while allowing achievement of the primary goal of eradicating the infection or colonization. Two patients required a second operation for fixation of a fibrous union of the lateral condyle. One patient with a vascularized fibular graft later required triple plate fixation for malalignment at the distal host and graft junction. Four of five patients ultimately achieved complete union. The fracture remained ununited in one patient who has declined additional intervention. All five patients achieved at least 85 degrees ulnohumeral motion, two after a secondary elbow capsulectomy performed after healing was achieved. This experience suggested that the Ilizarov construct, although not a panacea, represents a reliable method of skeletal stabilization that allows functional mobilization while elimination of infection or colonization is ensured. If necessary, stiffness and incomplete healing can be addressed with an increased margin of safety at subsequent operations.
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keywords = malalignment
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7/821. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder mimicking a nonspecific lymphocytic pleural effusion in a bone marrow transplant recipient. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Serous effusions are rare complications of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and result mainly from infections or tumor relapse. CASE: We report a case of posttransplantation lympho-proliferative disorder (PTLD) revealed by cytodiagnostic examination of serous effusions in a BMT recipient. The effusion was initially considered reactive, but morphologic, immunocytologic and molecular studies subsequently revealed PTLD. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of cytologic examination of effusions in BMT or organ recipients. Since most PTLDs are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and T cells predominate in reactive effusions, appropriate initial immunostaining, including CD3, CD79a and EBV latent membrane protein, should aid in their early detection.
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8/821. Cervical spondylodiscitis after removal of a fishbone. A case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of cervical spondylodiscitis after removal of a lodged fishbone. OBJECTIVES: To present a rare case of cervical spondylodiscitis and to inform the readers that a lodged fishbone can give rise to this complication after its removal. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In the literature, only one mention of this complication was found. methods: The literature, clinical presentation, technical examinations, and treatment are reviewed. RESULTS: Prolonged antibiotic treatment and immobilization of the cervical spine resulted in a cure of the spondylodiscitis. CONCLUSIONS: After removal of a lodged fishbone, a cervical spondylodiscitis is possible, but this is a very rare complication. In this patient, conservative treatment resulted in a cure of the infection. Successive magnetic resonance imaging investigations showed the extent of the destruction of the vertebral bodies and disc very well, as well as the curation of the spondylodiscitis after 5 months.
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9/821. A surgical method for treating anterior skull base injuries.

    skull base surgery was performed on 18 patients with anterior skull base injuries. The operative technique consisted of opening the operative field in the anterior skull base via a coronal incision and a frontal craniotomy, debridement of the anterior skull base including the injured dura mater, performing drainage from the anterior skull base to the nasal cavity by ethmoidectomy, and reconstructing the resulting dural and anterior skull base defect using bilateral temporal musculo-pericranial flaps and a bone graft. Seventeen of the 18 patients recovered without any complications, although epidural abscesses in the anterior skull base had been present in four patients at the time of the operation. Only one patient developed an epidural abscess in the anterior skull base after the operation. None of the patients developed any other complications including meningitis, recurrent liquorrhoea or cerebral herniation. Satisfactory aesthetic results were achieved in 16 of the 18 patients. In one patient, uneven deformity of the forehead, which was caused by the partial sequestration of the frontal bone due to postoperative infection, was observed. In another patient, a depressed deformity of the forehead, which was caused by the partial loss of the frontalis muscle following the use of the frontal musculo-pericranial flap instead of a temporal musculo-pericranial flap, was observed. Anterior skull base reconstruction using bilateral temporal musculo-pericranial flaps provides excellent results in terms of patient recovery and aesthetics.
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10/821. hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine.

    Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified.
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