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1/322. Late complications of Silastic duraplasty: low-virulence infections. Case report.

    The authors describe three patients with expanding hemorrhagic mass lesions who presented 13 to 18 years after undergoing Silastic duraplasty. In all patients, results of bacteriological cultures of the masses obtained intraoperatively were positive, revealing low-virulence bacteria. Two of the patients were treated with antibiotic drugs and made a good recovery. The third did not receive antibiotic medications initially and later developed an epidural empyema that necessitated reoperation, but subsequently made a complete recovery. Vascularized neomembranes are generally agreed to be causes of the expanding masses, but the possibility that patients could be harboring chronic infections must be considered. Thus, on removal of duraplasty materials a complete bacteriological culture should be obtained, and if it is positive the proper antibiotic therapy should be administered. Furthermore, the creation of a registry of patients who have received implants is advocated to facilitate tracking of implanted material in case of complications.
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2/322. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder mimicking a nonspecific lymphocytic pleural effusion in a bone marrow transplant recipient. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Serous effusions are rare complications of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and result mainly from infections or tumor relapse. CASE: We report a case of posttransplantation lympho-proliferative disorder (PTLD) revealed by cytodiagnostic examination of serous effusions in a BMT recipient. The effusion was initially considered reactive, but morphologic, immunocytologic and molecular studies subsequently revealed PTLD. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of cytologic examination of effusions in BMT or organ recipients. Since most PTLDs are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and T cells predominate in reactive effusions, appropriate initial immunostaining, including CD3, CD79a and EBV latent membrane protein, should aid in their early detection.
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3/322. Negative pressure pulmonary hemorrhage.

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema, a well-recognized phenomenon, is the formation of pulmonary edema following an acute upper airway obstruction (UAO). To our knowledge, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage has not been reported previously as a complication of an UAO. We describe a case of negative pressure pulmonary hemorrhage, and we propose that its etiology is stress failure, the mechanical disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane.
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4/322. Possible development of idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

    We report a rare case of idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP). During a laparotomy before undergoing a distal gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction for early gastric cancer, the patient was found to have a membranous encapsulation wrapping each small bowel loop, unlike peritoneal encapsulation or typical SEP. He had complained of persistent heartburn, distension and diarrhea for 2 months in the post-operative course. The second laparotomy, which was performed to improve prolonged transit, revealed typical SEP with a thick and fibrotic membrane that encased the small bowel entirely. Stripping of the sclerosing encasing membrane, separation of the adherent loops of the proximal small bowel, and Braun's anastomosis were performed. The patient complained of epigastric fullness and diarrhea after he was relieved from the complete bowel obstruction for 45 days post-operatively. trimebutine maleate was administrated 5 months after the second operation and this markedly improved his symptoms. This case might reflect the developmental process of idiopathic SEP. In addition, the use of a motility regulator may improve symptoms related to the abnormal intestinal motility by this disease.
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5/322. Neuromyotonia of the abducens nerve after hypophysectomy and radiation.

    The clinical signs of the rarely encountered ocular neuromyotonia consist of transient involuntary tonic contraction and delayed relaxation of single or multiple extraocular muscles, resulting in episodic diplopia. With a mean time delay of 3.5 years, this motility disorder frequently follows tumor excision or adjuvant radiation near the skull base. Ocular neuromyotonia may reflect inappropriate discharge from oculomotor neurons with unstable cell membranes because of segmental demyelinization by tumor compression and radiation-induced microangiopathy. In the present paper, the authors present the case of a 53-year-old patient with a history of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy, who underwent strabismus surgery for abducens palsy.
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6/322. An unusual procedure for the treatment of simultaneous pericardial and pleural effusions.

    BACKGROUND: Symptomatic posterior pericardial effusion (PE) represents a diagnostic challenge since it is not easy to quantify by echocardiography. In addition, this type of effusion is normally treated by surgery because of the difficulty in drainage. CASE: A 59-year-old male presented a symptomatic circumferential PE following mitral valve substitution. Two days after a successful percutaneous subcostal pericardiocentesis, he reported severe dyspnea with hypotension and pulsus paradoxus. At chest x-rays, he showed a left pleural effusion; echocardiography, also performed from the left posterior axillary line, showed a large posterior PE and a large pleural effusion separated by a membrane. A needle was inserted at the fourth intercostal space 2 cm medially to the left posterior axillary line and advanced into the pleural and then into the pericardial cavity under echocardiographic guidance. Serous-hemorrhagic fluid was drained from the pericardial (800 cc) cavity and, after retraction, from the left pleural cavities (600 cc), with consequent hemodynamic improvement. CONCLUSION: Pleuro-pericardiocentesis may represent a valid alternative to surgery for the treatment of cardiac tamponade due to posterior pericardial effusions, in the peculiar situation characterized by the simultaneous presence of a left pleural effusion. This procedure should be performed by qualified physicians under echographic guidance.
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7/322. Surgical treatment of submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

    PURPOSE: To report the visual outcome of surgical treatment of submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. methods: Eight eyes of eight consecutive patients with thick submacular hemorrhages associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and tissue plasminogen activator-assisted removal of subretinal blood (December 1995 to September 1997) or intravitreal 100% sulfur hexafluoride gas injection without tissue plasminogen activator (October 1997 to March 1998). RESULTS: Postoperatively, laser treatment was performed for active polypoidal lesions outside the foveal avascular zone in four eyes. A retinal pigment epithelial tear was seen outside the foveal avascular zone in three eyes, and one eye developed a retinal detachment. The best-corrected visual acuity improved (by 3 or more lines) or stabilized in seven of the eight eyes. Four eyes had a final best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and three eyes had a final best-corrected visual acuity of 20/50 to 20/200. In one eye, the visual acuity decreased from 20/100 to 20/500 because of the development of a subfoveal neovascular membrane. The membrane was excised, and histologic examination showed fibrovascular tissue between the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (type 2 pattern). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical intervention may be of benefit in eyes with submacular hemorrhage associated with idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.
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8/322. Treatment of iatrogenic previable premature rupture of membranes with intra-amniotic injection of platelets and cryoprecipitate (amniopatch): preliminary experience.

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the treatment of iatrogenic previable premature rupture of membranes with the intra-amniotic injection of platelets and cryoprecipitate (amniopatch). STUDY DESIGN: patients with iatrogenic previable premature rupture of membranes and without evidence of intra-amniotic infection underwent transabdominal intra-amniotic injection of platelets and cryoprecipitate through a 22-gauge needle. The study was approved by the Institutional review Board of St Joseph's Hospital in Tampa, florida, and all patients gave written informed consent. RESULTS: Seven patients with iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes underwent placement of an amniopatch. Membrane sealing was verifiable in 6 of 7 patients. Three patients had iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes after operative fetoscopy, 3 cases were after genetic amniocentesis, and 1 was after diagnostic fetoscopy. Three pregnancies progressed well, with restoration of the amniotic fluid volume and no further leakage. Two patients had unexplained fetal death despite successful sealing. One case of bladder outlet obstruction had no further leakage, but oligohydramnios persisted and did not allow unequivocal documentation of sealing. One patient miscarried from twin-twin transfusion, but the amniotic cavity was sealed. CONCLUSIONS: Iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes can be treated effectively with an amniopatch. The technique is simple and does not require knowledge of the exact location of the defect. Unexpected fetal death from the procedure may be attributable to vasoactive effects of platelets or indigo carmine. Although the appropriate dose of platelets and cryoprecipitate needs to be established, the amniopatch may mean that iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes no longer needs to be considered a devastating complication of pregnancy.
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9/322. Macular translocation with retinotomy and retinal rotation for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of macular translocation with retinotomy and retinal rotation in exudative age-related macular degeneration. methods: After written informed consent was obtained, 20 patients underwent macular translocation. We created a 180-degree retinotomy superior, inferior, and temporal to the macula near the equator. The hinged retinal flap was rotated superiorly or inferiorly to place the center of the fovea over an area of healthy retinal pigment epithelium. The retina was flattened under silicone oil and laser photocoagulation was placed. RESULTS: The fovea was moved 425 to 1,700 microm (965 /-262 microm) superiorly or inferiorly. Follow-up time was 2 to 12 months (median 8 months). Complications included macular pucker (3 eyes), subfoveal hemorrhage (2 eyes), macular hole (1 eye), and progression of cataract in phakic eyes (3 eyes). Thirteen of 20 eyes showed various degrees of proliferative vitreoretinopathy with epiretinal membrane formation over the inferior peripheral retina with the inferior retinal detachment stabilized by the silicone oil. One eye progressed to phthisis bulbi. Initial visual acuity ranged from 20/80 to 20/800 (median 20/150) and final visual acuity ranged from light perception to 20/200 (median 20/1000). CONCLUSION: The fovea can be moved up to 1,700 microm with retinotomy and retinal rotation; however, there is a high rate of complications. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy is the major complication of this technique and is probably related to the extensive retinotomy and subretinal irrigation inherent in the technique. Other techniques such as scleral shortening may have fewer complications.
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10/322. Macular ring in a patient with Terson's syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report on a pigmented finding in the macula that is unique to Terson's syndrome, and was previously described only once. METHOD: A 49-year-old man underwent vitrectomy for vitreous hemorrhage due to Terson's syndrome. During surgery the retina was exposed, and a pigmentation was noticed around the macula. Follow-up of the macular finding is presented. RESULTS: At surgery a pigmented "ring" encircling the macula was revealed. Two and six months later, the pigmented line was still noticed, and an epiretinal membrane appeared in the temporal macula. CONCLUSION: Terson's syndrome may be associated with a pigmented "ring" encircling the macula, a finding that may be a result of a detachment of the internal limiting membrane (ILM). The epiretinal membrane that was later noticed, might also be related to the damage to the ILM.
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