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1/598. Acute torsion of the renal transplant after combined kidney-pancreas transplant.

    BACKGROUND: Surgical complications after combined kidney and pancreas transplantation are a major source of morbidity and mortality. Complications related to the pancreas occur with greater frequency as compared to renal complications. The occurrence in our practice of two cases of renal infarction resulting from torsion about the vascular pedicle led to our retrospective review of similar vascular complications after combined kidney and pancreas transplantation. methods: charts were reviewed retrospectively, and two patients were identified who experienced torsion about the vascular pedicle of an intra-abdominally placed renal allograft. RESULTS: Two patients who had received combined intraperitoneal kidney and pancreas transplantation presented at 16 and 11 months after transplant, respectively, with abdominal pain and decreased urine output. One patient had radiological documentation of abnormal rotation before the graft loss; unfortunately, the significance of this finding was missed. diagnosis was made in both patients at laparotomy, where the kidneys were infarcted secondary to torsion of the vascular pedicle. Both patients underwent transplant nephrectomy and subsequently received a successful second cadaveric renal transplant. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of this complication is a result of the intra-abdominal placement of the kidney, length of the vascular pedicle, excess ureteral length, and paucity of adhesions secondary to steroid administration. These factors contribute to abnormal mobility of the kidney. Technical modifications such as minimizing excess ureteral length and nephropexy may help to avoid this complication.
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keywords = mortality
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2/598. Fatal cardiac ischaemia associated with prolonged desflurane anaesthesia and administration of exogenous catecholamines.

    PURPOSE: Four cardiac ischaemic events are reported during and after prolonged anaesthesia with desflurane. CLINICAL FEATURES: We have evaluated desflurane in 21 consecutive patients undergoing advanced head and neck reconstructive surgery. Four deaths occurred which were associated with cardiac ischaemic syndromes either during or immediately after operation. All patients in the study received a similar anaesthetic. This comprised induction with propofol and maintenance with alfentanil and desflurane in oxygen-enriched air. Inotropic support (either dopamine or dobutamine in low dose, 5 micrograms.kg.min-1) was provided as part of the anaesthetic technique in all patients. Critical cardiovascular incidents were observed in each of the four patients during surgery. These were either sudden bradycardia or tachycardia associated with ST-segment electrocardiographic changes. The four patients who died had a documented past history of coronary heart disease and were classified American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II or III. One patient (#2) did not survive anaesthesia and surgery and the three others died on the first, second and twelfth postoperative days. Enzyme increases (CK/CK-MB) were available in three patients and confirmed myocardial ischaemia. CONCLUSION: These cases represent an unexpected increase in the immediate postoperative mortality for these types of patients and this anaesthetic sequence.
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3/598. Extended laryngofissure in the management of subglottic stenosis in the young child: a preliminary report.

    The child with subglottic stenosis and a tracheotomy is a management problem. To date, a consistent method for successful and expeditious correction of the primary lesion to permit decannulation has eluded clinicians. The child is tracheotomized and thus frequently hospitalized for a lengthy period. Personal development and family relationships are adversely affected and the mortality rate during this period of cannulation is significant. During the past eighteen months in an attempt to achieve earlier decannulation, three children with subglottic stenosis have undergone a surgical procedure in which division of the anterior and posterior aspects of the cricoid ring are the key surgical maneuvers.
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keywords = mortality
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4/598. Ogilvie's syndrome after lower extremity arthroplasty.

    OBJECTIVE: To alert surgeons who perform arthroplasty to the possibility of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie's syndrome) after elective orthopedic procedures. To identify possible risk factors and emphasize the need for prompt recognition, careful monitoring and appropriate management so as to reduce morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: A case series. SETTING: A university-affiliated hospital that is a major referral centre for orthopedic surgery. patients: Four patients who had Ogilvie's syndrome after lower extremity arthroplasty. Of this group, 2 had primary hip arthroplasty, 1 had primary knee arthroplasty and 1 had revision hip arthroplasty. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: In all 4 patients Ogilvie's syndrome was recognized late and required surgical intervention. Two patients died as a result of postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Our case series identified increasing age, immobility and patient-controlled narcotic analgesia as potential risk factors for Ogilvie's syndrome in the postoperative orthopedic patient. Prompt recognition and early consultation with frequent clinical and radiographic monitoring are necessary to avoid colonic perforation and its significant associated death rate.
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ranking = 2
keywords = mortality
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5/598. safety issues in ultrasound-assisted large-volume lipoplasty.

    Ultrasound-assisted large volume lipoplasty is controversial because of the potential for increased morbidity and mortality. The plastic surgeon must pay attention to details in patient selection, anesthesia considerations, intraoperative fluid balance, and the technical aspects of ultrasound-assisted lipoplasty to be consistently successful. The avoidance or early detection of complications such as intracavitary penetrations, fluid overload, hypovolemia, deep venous thrombosis, and lidocaine toxicity requires frequent examination by the surgeon. When properly executed, large volume lipoplasty can be gratifying to both patient and surgeon.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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6/598. Portal, mesenteric, and splenic vein thromboses after splenectomy in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia variant with thrombocythemic onset.

    Portal, mesenteric, or splenic vein thrombosis is a very uncommon complication with significant mortality in the patients undergoing splenectomy for hematologic disorders. We report a 49-year-old woman who developed portal, superior mesenteric, and splenic vein thromboses after splenectomy. Four years before the event, she presented with a marked thrombocytosis and was diagnosed to have chronic myeloid leukemia variant with thrombocythemic onset as evidence by philadelphia (Ph1) chromosome and a b3a2 BCR/ABL transcript. Six weeks after splenectomy, she developed severe epigastric pain. The diagnosis of thromboses of portal, mesenteric, and splenic veins was made by computed tomography scan and Doppler sonogram. She was successfully treated with antegrade intraarterial urokinase therapy via superior mesenteric artery and long-term anticoagulant therapies. To our knowledge, our patient is the first case of portal, mesenteric, and splenic vein thromboses after splenectomy in a patient with CML variant with thrombocythemic onset successfully treated with antegrade intraarterial thrombolytic therapy followed by anticoagulant therapies.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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7/598. Acute cardiac herniation after radical pleuropneumonectomy.

    Acute cardiac herniation after radical pneumonectomy is extremely rare and is associated with an immediate mortality greater than 50%. We report a patient in whom cardiac herniation produced no signs or symptoms. The heart was returned to its correct position and the pericardial defect was repaired.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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8/598. pulmonary embolism following laparoscopic antireflux surgery: a case report and review of the literature.

    Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are concerning causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing general surgical procedures. Laparoscopic surgery has gained rapid acceptance in the past several years and is now a commonly performed procedure by most general surgeons. Multiple anecdotal reports of pulmonary embolism following laparoscopic cholecystectomy have been reported, but the true incidence of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery is not known. We present a case of pulmonary embolism following laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernia. The literature is then reviewed regarding the incidence of pulmonary embolism following laparoscopic surgery, the mechanism of deep venous thrombosis formation, and the recommendations for deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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9/598. nitric oxide inhalation in the treatment of primary graft failure following heart transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Primary graft failure from right or left ventricular insufficiency remains a serious cause of early death following heart transplantation. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a potent pulmonary vasodilator that could decrease pulmonary pressure and improve right ventricular function. methods: Two cases of early graft failure following orthotopic heart transplantation were treated with NO inhalation. The treatment consisted of inhalation of 20 ppm of NO, introduced 4 to 6 hours following transplantation, in 2 patients supported with high doses of inotropic agents and vasopressors in addition to the intra-aortic balloon pump. RESULTS: In the first and second cases, NO inhalation resulted in a decrease in pulmonary artery pressure, in a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance and in an increase in cardiac index. In the second patient, systemic oxygenation improved markedly 30 minutes after initiation of NO. In the 2 patients, NO inhalation, mechanical ventilation and the intra-aortic balloon pump were weaned 4 days following transplantation. CONCLUSION: Primary graft failure from donor ischemic damage, reperfusion injury or pulmonary hypertension remains a serious complication. The use of an intra-aortic balloon pump, inotropic agents and of inhaled NO appears to offer the best support for recovery of donor heart function. Primary graft failure from right or left ventricular insufficiency remains a serious cause of early mortality following heart transplantation. Ischemic damage of donor heart, reperfusion injury or pulmonary hypertension are the main causes of early graft failure. Although the cause is multifactorial, treatment of primary organ failure remains difficult with dismal results. The objective of the present study was to review the result of 2 patients with donor right heart failure following heart transplantation treated with inhaled nitric oxide (NO).
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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10/598. disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the pathophysiology, manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) as it occurs in cancer. DATA SOURCES: Published articles, research reports, and book chapters. CONCLUSIONS: The syndrome of DIC is a serious hypercoagulation state that in its acute form may be life-threatening. The hemorrhage and intravascular coagulation that occur with DIC may lead to irreversible morbidity and mortality. Prompt recognition and emergency treatment are necessary to help minimize morbidity and mortality. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: nurses can play an important role in early recognition of DIC to allow for prompt intervention. nurses caring for patients affected by DIC will be providing complex nursing care, in addition to psychosocial support to patients and families.
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ranking = 2
keywords = mortality
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