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1/1231. Intercondylar notch fibrous nodule after total knee replacement.

    Intra-articular fibrous bands and soft-tissue impingement under the patella after total knee replacement are a well known complications that can be diagnosed and treated arthroscopically. Arthroscopic treatment of soft-tissue impingement between femoral and tibial components in a total knee arthroplasty has been recently reported. The purpose of this article is to report one more case of this pathology of a more fibrotic type resembling a nodule in the intercondylar notch that prevents total extension and to discuss the possible origin and clinical significance. Finally, we propose a classification of the fibrotic reactions after total knee arthroplasty: (A)Multiples or complex bundles reactions; and (B)singles or isolates nodular forms: fibrous nodule in the femoropatelar area (clunk syndrome), and fibrous nodule in the intercondylar notch.
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2/1231. Postoperative gas bubble foot drop. A case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: An unusual case of foot drop occurring 10 days after disc surgery is reported. Imaging studies identified a gas bubble compressing the nerve root. OBJECTIVE: To describe the origin and management of a radiculopathy caused by an intraspinal gas bubble. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A recurrent lumbar disc herniation was diagnosed by clinical and imaging studies. A vacuum disc also was noted at the same level. These are common and not considered to be of pathologic significance. methods: The patient underwent a microdiscectomy for a lumbar disc extrusion. The postoperative course was excellent, with relief of symptoms and no neurologic deficit. Ten days later, the awoke with a foot drop and pain in the leg. Imaging studies showed a 4-mm gas bubble compressing the nerve root. Oral steroids were given for 10 days. RESULTS: Progressive improvement occurred, and the patient was asymptomatic 6 weeks later. Although in some instances it may be necessary to evacuate intraspinal gas, an initial period of observation is warranted, because the gas and its resulting symptoms may disappear spontaneously. CONCLUSION: Intradiscal gas accumulation, better known as vacuum disc, is considered to be a benign indication of degenerative disc disease. On occasion it can be a cause of symptoms. A case is reported in which gas leaked after surgery into the spinal canal, causing a foot drop. The symptoms and gas disappeared spontaneously without further treatment.
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3/1231. scedosporium apiospermum sinusitis after bone marrow transplantation: report of a case.

    A forty-year-old man underwent an allogeneic BMT from his HLA identical sister. GvHD prophylaxis was done with cyclosporine (CyA), methotrexate and prednisone (PDN). On day 90 extensive GvHD was noted and higher doses of immunosuppressive drugs alternating CyA with PDN were initiated. Patient's follow-up was complicated by intermittent episodes of leukopenia and monthly episodes of sinusitis or pneumonia. One year after BMT, the patient developed hoarseness and nasal voice. No etiologic agent could be identified on a biopsy sample of the vocal chord. Upon tapering the doses of immunosuppressive drugs, the patient had worsening of chronic GvHD and was reintroduced on high doses of cyclosporine alternating with prednisone on day 550. Three months later, GvHD remained out of control and the patient was started on azathioprine. On day 700, hoarseness and nasal voice recurred. Another biopsy of the left vocal chord failed to demonstrate infection. Episodes of sinusitis became more frequent and azathioprine was withheld 3 months after it was started. One month later, the patient had bloody nasal discharge and surgical drainage of maxillary sinuses was performed. Histopathology showed hyphae and cultures grew scedosporium apiospermum. itraconazole 800 mg/day was initiated. The patient developed progressive respiratory failure and died 15 days later.
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4/1231. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after a living-related liver transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a rare complication after liver transplantation. We describe three cases of ITP in pediatric patients after a living-related liver transplantation (LRLT). methods: Of 266 patients who underwent an LRLT between June 1990 and June 1996, severe thrombocytopenia developed in three pediatric patients after transplantation, and ITP was also diagnosed. The original disease was biliary atresia in all cases, and the patients were given a partial liver graft from a living-related mother and subsequently treated with tacrolimus and low-dose steroids as an immunosuppressive regimen. RESULTS: The duration until the onset of ITP after transplantation in the three cases was 1 day, 3 months, and 13 months, respectively. The platelet-associated IgG levels increased in all cases. A preceding viral infection was suspected in two of the three cases. All patients were treated with intravenous gamma globulin with a transient recovery of thrombocytopenia in two cases and a sustained recovery in another. CONCLUSIONS: Transplant clinicians need to be aware of the possibility of ITP complication because a sudden onset of severe thrombocytopenia can occur even in patients who are apparently doing well after undergoing an LRLT.
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5/1231. Postoperative pulmonary edema.

    BACKGROUND: Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema may be caused by upper airway obstruction due to laryngospasm after general anesthesia. This syndrome of "negative pressure pulmonary edema" is apparently well known among anesthesiologists but not by other medical specialists. methods: We reviewed the cases of seven patients who had acute pulmonary edema postoperatively. RESULTS: There was no evidence of fluid overload or occult cardiac disease, but upper airway obstruction was the most common etiology. Each patient responded quickly to therapy without complications. CONCLUSIONS: Of the seven patients with noncardiogenic postoperative pulmonary edema, at least three cases were associated with documented laryngospasm causing upper airway obstruction. This phenomenon has been reported infrequently in the medical literature and may be underdiagnosed. Immediate recognition and treatment of this syndrome are important. The prognosis for complete recovery is excellent.
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6/1231. Directional coronary atherectomy in acute myocardial infarction.

    To date, application of directional coronary atherectomy (DCA) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has had limited reports. In eleven patients with AMI, DCA was applied. In three of these patients, DCA was used as a stand-alone procedure without use of thrombolytic agents. In each case a guidewire was placed across the stenosis, and in eight patients balloon angioplasty was utilized as a predilating modality prior to DCA. The thrombolytic agent urokinase was utilized in five of these eight patients, either before, during, or after angioplasty and/or DCA. DCA success (defined as ability to cross the lesion, reduction of less than or equal to 20% in stenosis and thrombolysis--when a thrombus is present) was achieved in 10 of 11 patients. One patient had persistent abrupt reclosure of an LAD lesion, accompanied by hemodynamic compromise, necessitating intra-aortic balloon pump insertion and subsequent emergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Final angiograms revealed residual stenoses less than or equal to 20%, and adequate thrombolysis. Significant cardiac events were limited to one emergent CABG, Q wave MI in four patients, and non-Q wave MI in two patients. Clinically all eleven patients improved, survived the AMI/CABG, and were discharged. This clinical experience demonstrates the feasibility and safety of DCA application in selected patients who experience acute myocardial infarction.
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7/1231. A surgical method for treating anterior skull base injuries.

    skull base surgery was performed on 18 patients with anterior skull base injuries. The operative technique consisted of opening the operative field in the anterior skull base via a coronal incision and a frontal craniotomy, debridement of the anterior skull base including the injured dura mater, performing drainage from the anterior skull base to the nasal cavity by ethmoidectomy, and reconstructing the resulting dural and anterior skull base defect using bilateral temporal musculo-pericranial flaps and a bone graft. Seventeen of the 18 patients recovered without any complications, although epidural abscesses in the anterior skull base had been present in four patients at the time of the operation. Only one patient developed an epidural abscess in the anterior skull base after the operation. None of the patients developed any other complications including meningitis, recurrent liquorrhoea or cerebral herniation. Satisfactory aesthetic results were achieved in 16 of the 18 patients. In one patient, uneven deformity of the forehead, which was caused by the partial sequestration of the frontal bone due to postoperative infection, was observed. In another patient, a depressed deformity of the forehead, which was caused by the partial loss of the frontalis muscle following the use of the frontal musculo-pericranial flap instead of a temporal musculo-pericranial flap, was observed. Anterior skull base reconstruction using bilateral temporal musculo-pericranial flaps provides excellent results in terms of patient recovery and aesthetics.
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8/1231. Late complications of nasal augmentation using silicone implants.

    Alloplastic nasal augmentation with silicone elastomer (Silastic) is popular in areas of asia. Although the silicones are bio-inert, they have been implicated in a number of adverse reactions after implantation. We report our experience of three patients who presented with late complications after nasal augmentation using Silastic implants. The mechanisms of implant failure are proposed. It is advised that this material should only be used on an individual basis in carefully selected cases.
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9/1231. Fatal late multiple emboli after endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Case report.

    BACKGROUND: The short term experience of endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) seems promising but long term randomised data are lacking. Consequently, cases treated by endovascular procedures need to be closely followed for potential risks and benefits. CASE REPORT: A 70 year-old mildly hypertensive male without previous or present arteriosclerotic, pulmonary, or urological manifestations was subjected to endovascular treatment after his mass-screening diagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysm had expanded to above 5 cm in diameter, the aneurysm having been found by CT-scanning and arteriography to be endovascularly treatable. A Vanguard bifurcated aortic stent graft was implanted under epidural/spinal anaesthesia and covered by cephalosporine and heparin (8000 IE) protection. Apart from treatment of a groin haematoma and stenosis of the left superficial femoral artery, the postoperative period presented no problems. A few days before the monthly follow-up visit, the patient developed uraemia, gangrene of one foot and dyspnoea. blood glucose and LDH was elevated. Deterioration led to death a month and a half after stent implantation. autopsy showed extraordinary large, extensive soft, brown vegetations in the lower part of the thoracic aorta above the properly infrarenally-placed stent. Microscopic examination revealed multiple microemboli in the liver, spleen, pancreas, intestines, testes, and especially the kidneys. DISCUSSION: Early death from microemboli after aortic stent implantation has been reported. However, the present case developed fatal multiple microemboli so late that they could not have originated from the excluded mural thrombus. The sudden death of an otherwise healthy man of extensive microemboli is difficult to explain. The stent application may have altered the proximal flow and wall movements disposing to microemboli in the case of vegetations.
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10/1231. Misdiagnosis of specific cytomegalovirus infection of the ileoanal pouch as refractory idiopathic chronic pouchitis: report of two cases.

    PURPOSE: Chronic nonspecific reservoir ileitis (pouchitis) occurs in 5 to 10 percent of patients who undergo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Specific infection of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with cytomegalovirus has not been reported. AIM: We report two patients with specific cytomegalovirus infection of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, initially misdiagnosed as idiopathic chronic pouchitis. CASE SERIES: Patient 1 had ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Three years later she had diarrhea, fever, pelvic pain, and pouch inflammation at endoscopy consistent with pouchitis. She had no response to medical therapy. Repeat endoscopy showed persistent inflammation and biopsies showed cytomegalovirus. She had symptomatic improvement after treatment with intravenous ganciclovir, 10 mg/kg/day for ten days (stopped for rash). Repeat pouch biopsies were negative for cytomegalovirus. Patient 2 had ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Nine years later she had resection of obstructing stricture at previous loop ileostomy site. She underwent reoperation with ileostomy and pouch defunctionalization for peritonitis. Four weeks later she had fever and bloody discharge from the diverted pouch. Pouch endoscopy with biopsy showed inflammation consistent with pouchitis. She had no response to medical therapy. Re-examination of pouch biopsies with a specific monoclonal immunofluorescent stain showed cytomegalovirus. She had symptomatic improvement after treatment with intravenous ganciclovir, 10 mg/kg/day for 21 days. Repeat pouch biopsies were negative for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: Specific cytomegalovirus infection of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis may be misdiagnosed as idiopathic refractory chronic pouchitis. cytomegalovirus must be excluded before immune modifier therapy or pouch excision in these patients.
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