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1/5709. Three cases of patella fracture in 1,320 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft.

    Between September 1992 and December 1996 we reviewed three transverse displaced fractures of the patella occuring in 1,320 ACL reconstructions using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. All the patients suffered local injury to the donor knee between 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Immediate rigid fixation using single or double anterior tension band allowed early mobilization and full weight bearing. Between 6 and 9 months after fracture, the screws and the wire were removed and the grafts tested. Results of the pivot shift and Lachman test under anesthesia were negative and arthroscopic visualisation showed the graft to be intact. Postoperative assessment included the Lysholm and Tegner scales, the International knee documentation Committee Evaluation form (IKDC), KT-1000 arthrometer, and isokinetic dynamometer strength testing. No significant differences in the final outcome were noted between reconstructions complicated by patellar fracture and normal ACL reconstructions.
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2/5709. Postoperative gas bubble foot drop. A case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: An unusual case of foot drop occurring 10 days after disc surgery is reported. Imaging studies identified a gas bubble compressing the nerve root. OBJECTIVE: To describe the origin and management of a radiculopathy caused by an intraspinal gas bubble. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A recurrent lumbar disc herniation was diagnosed by clinical and imaging studies. A vacuum disc also was noted at the same level. These are common and not considered to be of pathologic significance. methods: The patient underwent a microdiscectomy for a lumbar disc extrusion. The postoperative course was excellent, with relief of symptoms and no neurologic deficit. Ten days later, the awoke with a foot drop and pain in the leg. Imaging studies showed a 4-mm gas bubble compressing the nerve root. Oral steroids were given for 10 days. RESULTS: Progressive improvement occurred, and the patient was asymptomatic 6 weeks later. Although in some instances it may be necessary to evacuate intraspinal gas, an initial period of observation is warranted, because the gas and its resulting symptoms may disappear spontaneously. CONCLUSION: Intradiscal gas accumulation, better known as vacuum disc, is considered to be a benign indication of degenerative disc disease. On occasion it can be a cause of symptoms. A case is reported in which gas leaked after surgery into the spinal canal, causing a foot drop. The symptoms and gas disappeared spontaneously without further treatment.
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3/5709. Treatment for empyema with bronchopleural fistulas using endobronchial occlusion coils: report of a case.

    We report herein the case of a woman with bronchopleural fistulas treated with the endobronchial placement of vascular embolization coils. She was referred to our hospital to undergo lavage of a postoperative empyema. She had undergone an air plombage operation for pulmonary tuberculosis 9 years previously. However, bronchopleural fistulas occurred postoperatively and she had to continue the use of a chest drainage tube since then. Lavage of her empyema space with 5kE of OK-432 (picibanil: Chugai) plus 100 mg minocycline was performed once every 2 weeks for 3 months, and the purulent discharge from the empyema remarkably decreased. Thereafter, the bronchopleural fistulas were occluded endobronchially by the placement of vascular embolization coils. Soon after the procedure, air leakage from the fistulas was stopped and the drainage tube was removed 2 days later. The patient remains well without any additional treatment at 20 months after this treatment. As treatment for empyema with bronchopleural fistulas, it would be worth trying to lavage the empyema space with OK-432 until it is cleaned out and to plug the fistulas by the endobronchial placement of embolization coils, before such radical operations as thoracoplasty and space-filling of the empyema are considered.
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4/5709. The clinical superiority of continuous exposure versus short-pulsed carbon dioxide laser exposures for the treatment of pearly penile papules.

    Treatment of pearly penile papules was performed both with a conventional continuous-wave (CW) and a newer generation high energy pulsed carbon dioxide laser. When compared to the short pulsed laser, the CW laser, using relatively low power densities, provided superior hemostasis and improved visualization of the operative field. Despite the increase in thermal injury, wound healing was not compromised. The results of this case report support the CO2 laser in CW mode as the infrared laser treatment of choice for exophytic lesions with increased vascularity.
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5/5709. Fatal cardiac ischaemia associated with prolonged desflurane anaesthesia and administration of exogenous catecholamines.

    PURPOSE: Four cardiac ischaemic events are reported during and after prolonged anaesthesia with desflurane. CLINICAL FEATURES: We have evaluated desflurane in 21 consecutive patients undergoing advanced head and neck reconstructive surgery. Four deaths occurred which were associated with cardiac ischaemic syndromes either during or immediately after operation. All patients in the study received a similar anaesthetic. This comprised induction with propofol and maintenance with alfentanil and desflurane in oxygen-enriched air. Inotropic support (either dopamine or dobutamine in low dose, 5 micrograms.kg.min-1) was provided as part of the anaesthetic technique in all patients. Critical cardiovascular incidents were observed in each of the four patients during surgery. These were either sudden bradycardia or tachycardia associated with ST-segment electrocardiographic changes. The four patients who died had a documented past history of coronary heart disease and were classified American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II or III. One patient (#2) did not survive anaesthesia and surgery and the three others died on the first, second and twelfth postoperative days. Enzyme increases (CK/CK-MB) were available in three patients and confirmed myocardial ischaemia. CONCLUSION: These cases represent an unexpected increase in the immediate postoperative mortality for these types of patients and this anaesthetic sequence.
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6/5709. Large and giant middle to lower basilar trunk aneurysms treated by surgical and interventional neuroradiological methods.

    Treatment of large and giant aneurysms of the basilar artery remains difficult and controversial. Three large or giant aneurysms of the lower basilar artery were treated with a combination of surgical and interventional neuroradiological procedures. All patients underwent the balloon occlusion test with hypotensive challenge (blood pressure reduced to 70% of the control value). The third patient did not tolerate the test. In the first patient, both vertebral arteries were occluded through a craniotomy. In the second patient, both the aneurysm and the basilar artery were occluded by detached balloons. In the third patient, one vertebral artery was occluded by surgical clipping and the other by detached helical coils and fiber coils. In spite of anti-coagulation and anti-platelet therapy, postoperative thrombotic or embolic ischemia occurred in the second and third patients. Fibrinolytic therapy promptly corrected the ischemic symptoms, but the second patient developed hemorrhagic complications at the craniotomy area 2 hours later. At follow-up examination, the first patient had only 8th cranial nerve paresis, the second patient who had a hemorrhagic complication was bed-ridden, and the third patient had no deficit. Interventional occlusion requires a longer segment of the parent artery compared to surgical occlusion of the parent artery and might cause occlusion of the perforating arteries. However, selected use of various coils can occlude only a short segment of the parent artery. Thus, the postoperative management of thromboembolic ischemia after the occlusion of the parent artery is easier using the interventional technique.
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7/5709. Anatomical and embryological considerations in the repair of a large vertex cephalocele. Case report.

    The case of a neonate with a large vertex cephalocele is presented. The anatomical features of this anomaly were evaluated by means of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Fusion of the thalami, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and failure of adequate formation of the interhemispheric fissure were characteristics of the major cerebral anomalies associated with the cephalocele. The absence of a falx in the midline, a split configuration of the superior sagittal sinus, and a dysgenetic tentorium with a concomitant abnormal venous drainage pattern were found in association with a large dorsal cyst. Repair of the anomaly was undertaken on the 3rd postnatal day. A cerebrospinal fluid shunt was required to treat hydrocephalus on Day 30. The child is well at age 3 years, but with significant developmental delay. The pathogenesis of this vertex cephalocele relates to semilobar holoprosencephaly and dorsal cyst formation. In addition, a disturbance in the separation of the diencephalic portion of the neural tube from the surface ectoderm or skin during the final phases of neurulation had occurred to help create the large cephalocele. Detailed preoperative imaging studies and awareness of the embryology and anatomy of this lesion facilitated the repair of the cephalocele. The prognosis of the child is determined not only by the presence of hydrocephalus, but also by the number of associated major cerebral anomalies. Options for treatment are discussed.
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8/5709. Late complications of Silastic duraplasty: low-virulence infections. Case report.

    The authors describe three patients with expanding hemorrhagic mass lesions who presented 13 to 18 years after undergoing Silastic duraplasty. In all patients, results of bacteriological cultures of the masses obtained intraoperatively were positive, revealing low-virulence bacteria. Two of the patients were treated with antibiotic drugs and made a good recovery. The third did not receive antibiotic medications initially and later developed an epidural empyema that necessitated reoperation, but subsequently made a complete recovery. Vascularized neomembranes are generally agreed to be causes of the expanding masses, but the possibility that patients could be harboring chronic infections must be considered. Thus, on removal of duraplasty materials a complete bacteriological culture should be obtained, and if it is positive the proper antibiotic therapy should be administered. Furthermore, the creation of a registry of patients who have received implants is advocated to facilitate tracking of implanted material in case of complications.
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9/5709. Reactivation of herpes virus after surgery for epilepsy in a pediatric patient with mesial temporal sclerosis: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: This case report is presented to raise the awareness of the potential risk of reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis after intracranial surgery. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The case of an 8-year-old male patient who suffered a reactivation of HSV encephalitis after undergoing amygdalohippocampectomy for complex partial seizures is reported. This patient had previously contracted HSV 1 meningoencephalitis at the age of 16 months. Six years later, a left amygdalohippocampectomy was proposed after the development of intractable partial epilepsy associated with left mesial temporal lesions. During the postoperative period, the patient suffered severe clinical deterioration with partial status epilepticus, aphasia, and hyperthermia, which resolved after intensive antiepileptic treatment supported by acyclovir. CONCLUSION: We advise prophylactic pre-, peri-, and postoperative treatment with acyclovir for patients with known histories of HSV encephalitis who undergo intracranial procedures.
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10/5709. Endovascular stent graft repair of aortopulmonary fistula.

    Two patients who had aortopulmonary fistula of postoperative origin with hemoptysis underwent successful repair by means of an endovascular stent graft procedure. One patient had undergone repeated thoracotomies two times, and the other one time to repair anastomotic aneurysms of the descending aorta after surgery for Takayasu's arteritis. A self-expanding stainless steel stent covered with a Dacron graft was inserted into the lesion through the external iliac or femoral artery. The patients recovered well, with no signs of infection or recurrent hemoptysis 8 months after the procedure. Endovascular stent grafting may be a therapeutic option for treating patients with aortopulmonary fistula.
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