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1/1556. Venous gas embolism during endoscopy.

    Venous gas embolism is a rare but serious complication of laparoscopic and endoscopic procedures. We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman with a strictured hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis who was treated with transabdominal endoscopic balloon dilation. During the procedure, she suffered a venous gas embolus with immediate cardiovascular collapse. After treatment with pressors, electrical cardioversion, and multiple aspirations of the right ventricle, the patient recovered fully. We reviewed all reported cases of venous gas embolism during endoscopy over the past 30 years and identified multiple risk factors. We suggest precautions to minimize future complications in patients at increased risk.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hepatic
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2/1556. Transcatheter occlusion of a post-Fontan residual hepatic vein to pulmonary venous atrium communication using the Amplatzer septal occluder.

    A residual hepatic vein to left atrial communication may result in progressive cyanosis after the fontan procedure. This problem has usually been treated surgically by ligation or re-inclusion of the residual hepatic vein in the Fontan circulation. Previous attempts at transcatheter closure of such veins have been unsuccessful. An Amplatzer septal occluder was successfully used for transcatheter closure of a post-Fontan hepatic vein to pulmonary venous atrium fistula in an 8 year old boy.
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ranking = 7
keywords = hepatic
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3/1556. Primary hepatic carcinoid in a renal transplant patient.

    There seems to be a world-wide increase in the incidence of tumors among immunosuppressed patients. Of 1350 renal allografts transplanted in the past 23 years at the Department of transplantation and Surgery, 56 cases were malignant tumors. The case of a 58-year-old female patient is reported, with disseminated primary carcinoid in the liver detected 86 days after renal transplantation. According to the literature only 39 patients with primary liver carcinoids have been reported until 1997, but this is the first where the carcinoid developed in an immunosuppressed patient. The rapid progression of the carcinoid could be associated with the immunosuppression.
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ranking = 4
keywords = hepatic
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4/1556. Left ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit in treatment of transposition of great arteries, restrictive ventricular septal defect, and acquired pulmonary atresia.

    Progressive cyanosis after banding of the pulmonary artery in infancy occurred in a child with transposition of the great arteries and a ventricular septal defect, and a Blalock-Taussig shunt operation had to be performed. At the time of correction a segment of pulmonary artery between the left ventricle and the band was found to be completely occluded so that continuity between the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery could not be restored. A Rastelli type of operation was not feasible as the ventricular septal defect was sited low in the muscular septum. Therefore, in addition to Mustard's operation, a Dacron conduit was inserted from the left ventricle to the main pulmonary artery to relieve the obstruction. Postoperative cardiac catheterization with angiocardiography indicated a satisfactory haemodynamic result. The patient remains well 11 months after the operation. This operation, a left ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit, may be used as an alternative procedure in patients with transposition of the great arteries, intact interventricular septum, and obstruction to the left ventricular outflow, if the obstruction cannot be adequately relieved.
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ranking = 20.410972495649
keywords = obstruction, outflow
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5/1556. Postoperative pulmonary edema.

    BACKGROUND: Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema may be caused by upper airway obstruction due to laryngospasm after general anesthesia. This syndrome of "negative pressure pulmonary edema" is apparently well known among anesthesiologists but not by other medical specialists. methods: We reviewed the cases of seven patients who had acute pulmonary edema postoperatively. RESULTS: There was no evidence of fluid overload or occult cardiac disease, but upper airway obstruction was the most common etiology. Each patient responded quickly to therapy without complications. CONCLUSIONS: Of the seven patients with noncardiogenic postoperative pulmonary edema, at least three cases were associated with documented laryngospasm causing upper airway obstruction. This phenomenon has been reported infrequently in the medical literature and may be underdiagnosed. Immediate recognition and treatment of this syndrome are important. The prognosis for complete recovery is excellent.
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ranking = 18.514294867234
keywords = obstruction
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6/1556. Early postoperative esophageal obstruction caused by enteral feeding concretions in patients who have undergone laryngectomy.

    We report two cases of tube-feeding concretions causing esophageal obstruction in patients after laryngectomy. The cause of tube-feeding concretions is unknown at this time but probably involves esophageal stasis caused by esophageal dysmotility, protein precipitation by acidic gastric contents, tube damage, and concomitant use of sucralfate and other antacids. Although this is a rare complication of nasogastric feedings, the diagnosis should be entertained in cases in which postoperative esophageal obstruction is noted in head and neck surgical patients.
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ranking = 37.028589734468
keywords = obstruction
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7/1556. Prolonged recovery after extended right hepatic lobectomy in a patient with severe blunt liver injury and laceration of the vena cava. A report of case with special references to autotransfusion and complications of biliary decompression.

    A patient with severe blunt liver injury and laceration of the vena cava who underwent a successful extended right hepatic lobectomy is reported. The use of autotransfusion unit saved the patient from exsanguination. His postoperative course was complicated by renal and hepatic failure, bile leakage, and persistent jaundice due to cholangitis. Prolonged choledochal drainage via T-tube obviously acted as a source of infection. The use of autotransfusion, choledochal drainage and the proper timing of its removal, the treatment of vena cava lesions and jaundice due to cholangitis in patients with severe liver trauma are discussed.
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ranking = 6
keywords = hepatic
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8/1556. Negative pressure pulmonary hemorrhage.

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema, a well-recognized phenomenon, is the formation of pulmonary edema following an acute upper airway obstruction (UAO). To our knowledge, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage has not been reported previously as a complication of an UAO. We describe a case of negative pressure pulmonary hemorrhage, and we propose that its etiology is stress failure, the mechanical disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane.
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ranking = 6.1714316224114
keywords = obstruction
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9/1556. The development of a pancreatic abscess, suppurative pylethrombosis, and multiple hepatic abscesses after a pancreatojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis: report of a case.

    We present herein an autopsy case of 63-year-old Japanese man who died as a result of pancreatic abscess, suppurative pylethrombosis, and multiple liver abscesses that had developed 10 years after a pancreato- and cystojejunostomy with side-to-side anastomosis for chronic pancreatitis. Even after this operation, the patient had continued to consume excessive amounts of alcohol. He had first experienced back pain with leukocytosis 9 years after the operation, which relapsed the following year. Despite percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage, his icterus had deteriorated into hepatic insufficiency. Computed tomographic scans of the abdomen had disclosed multiple liver abscesses. At autopsy, a pancreatic abscess and suppurative pylethrombosis as well as multiple liver abscesses were found. There have been few reported cases of such lethal complications developing after a pancreato- and cystojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. As the consumption of alcohol would have exacerbated the chronic pancreatitis, such patients should be strongly advised to abstain from drinking alcohol.
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ranking = 6
keywords = hepatic
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10/1556. Ogilvie's syndrome after lower extremity arthroplasty.

    OBJECTIVE: To alert surgeons who perform arthroplasty to the possibility of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie's syndrome) after elective orthopedic procedures. To identify possible risk factors and emphasize the need for prompt recognition, careful monitoring and appropriate management so as to reduce morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: A case series. SETTING: A university-affiliated hospital that is a major referral centre for orthopedic surgery. patients: Four patients who had Ogilvie's syndrome after lower extremity arthroplasty. Of this group, 2 had primary hip arthroplasty, 1 had primary knee arthroplasty and 1 had revision hip arthroplasty. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: In all 4 patients Ogilvie's syndrome was recognized late and required surgical intervention. Two patients died as a result of postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Our case series identified increasing age, immobility and patient-controlled narcotic analgesia as potential risk factors for Ogilvie's syndrome in the postoperative orthopedic patient. Prompt recognition and early consultation with frequent clinical and radiographic monitoring are necessary to avoid colonic perforation and its significant associated death rate.
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ranking = 6.1714316224114
keywords = obstruction
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