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1/116. akinetic mutism after fourth ventricle choroid plexus papilloma: treatment with a dopamine agonist.

    BACKGROUND: akinetic mutism is a behavioral state wherein a patient seems to be awake but does not move or speak. Several patients are reported to have developed mutism after posterior fossa surgery. We present a patient who developed akinetic mutism after total excision of a choroid plexus papilloma of the fourth ventricle, and who was treated with bromocriptine. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-year-old woman was admitted with akinetic mutism, which had developed 6 days after posterior fossa surgery. She had had no neurologic deficit in the first 5 days after surgery and could communicate with her family. Despite antioedematous therapy and daily lumbar punctures to drain cerebrospinal fluid, there was no clinical improvement after she entered the akinetic mute state. brain magnetic resonance revealed ventriculomegaly; brain single photon emission computed tomography revealed bilateral reduction of perfusion in the frontal region. Because daily lumbar drainage did not result in clinical improvement, shunt placement was not considered. bromocriptine therapy was begun at a dose of 2x2.5 mg; 24 hours later, the patient started to speak and move her upper extremities. Further improvement occurred over the following week when the dose was increased to 3x2.5 mg. bromocriptine was replaced with a placebo to determine whether the neurologic improvement was caused by the medicine. The patient's neurologic status deteriorated progressively; therefore, bromocriptine was restarted and she was discharged from the hospital. During the 6 months of follow-up, the patient has remained in good health. CONCLUSIONS: The etiology of akinetic mutism is not clear. Monoaminergic pathways, particularly dopaminergic cell groups, are most probably involved in this syndrome, because bromocriptine has a dramatic effect on these patients, as demonstrated in our case.
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2/116. Chylous complications after abdominal aortic surgery.

    Two patients developed chylous complications following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. One patient had chylous ascitis and was successfully treated by a peritoneo-caval shunt. The other patient developed a lymph cyst, which gradually resorbed after puncture. Chylous complications following aortic surgery are rare. patients in bad a general condition should be treated by initial paracentesis and total parenteral nutrition, supplemented by medium-chain triglyceride and low-fat diet. If no improvement is observed on this regimen, the next step should be implementation of a peritoneo-venous shunt, whereas direct ligation of the leak should be reserved for those who are not responding to this treatment.
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3/116. Percutaneous bowel drainage for jaundice due to afferent loop obstruction following pancreatoduodenectomy: report of a case.

    A case of jaundice due to an obstruction of the afferent loop following a pancreatoduodenectomy is presented. The dilated loop of the jejunum was drained percutaneously with a 12-F gastrostomy tube. Localized peritonitis around the puncture site was managed conservatively and the obstructive jaundice improved. The treatment strategy for this type of jaundice is discussed.
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4/116. Type IV spinal arteriovenous malformation in association with familial pulmonary vascular malformations: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Type IVc arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the spinal cord consist of multiple high-flow feeding vessels, and they often present a challenging management situation. Their location is intradural and extramedullary, and they are rare malformations that are difficult to treat owing to the risk of thrombosis of the anterior spinal artery. The authors report a case of Type IVc spinal AVM in a patient with a family history of three siblings with pulmonary AVMs. Spinal AVMs have been reported to be associated with inherited syndromes such as familial cutaneous hemangiomas and Kartagener's syndrome, but an association with pulmonary AVMs has not previously been described. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old man presented with sudden onset of occipital headache with cervical radiation while weightlifting. Results of computed tomography of the brain were normal, but lumbar puncture revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient had a 1-year history of a neurogenic bladder and exhibited marked left calf muscle wasting. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent spinal magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed the AVM in the conus region. Selective spinal angiography was performed for diagnostic purposes. A laminectomy was performed, and the vessels feeding the AVM were clipped, as was the fistula. CONCLUSION: The patient remained neurologically stable, and angiography confirmed obliteration of the AVM. This is the first case report of a patient with a spinal AVM who had multiple siblings with pulmonary malformations or AVMs.
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5/116. Experience with the high occipital transcortical approach in the treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage. Report of two cases.

    Two patients with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) were treated by direct removal of their intraventricular hematomas via a high occipital transcortical approach with successful results. This approach lies between the parietooccipital transcortical approach and the occipital transcortical approach. The patients were a 90-year-old woman with idiopathic IVH and a 60-year-old man with hemorrhage caused by bleeding in the thalamus. In both cases, the hematoma was tightly packed in the lateral ventricle. In the former case, the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle was extremely swollen, and the patient was at risk for development of uncal herniation. With the goals of complete elimination of the hematoma in the inferior horn and identification of the source of bleeding, a high occipital transcortical approach was applied, and the hematoma was removed under direct vision. With the patient in the lateral position, a minor craniotomy of approximately 3 cm was performed around the puncture site of the posterior horn (8 cm craniad from the inion and 3 cm lateral from the midline). A 1-cm cortical incision was made and the posterior horn was reached. First, the portion of hematoma at this site was removed, and then the remainder was completely removed from the interior horn and corpus. Using this method, the entire region of the lateral ventricle, including the inferior horn, corpus, and posterior horn, can be covered in a single operative field, and it is also possible to have sufficient working space for the operation.
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6/116. Post cardiac injury syndrome--one more cause of false positive IgG, IgM antibodies in pleural fluid against antigen-60 of mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Post cardiac injury syndrome (PCIS) is known to occur following myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery, blunt chest trauma, percutaneous left ventricular puncture and pace-maker implantation. The diagnosis is one of exclusion. We report a case of PCIS following cardiac surgery who showed false positive IgG, IgM antibodies to antigen A60 of mycobacterium tuberculosis in pleural fluid.
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7/116. Stent implantation for superior vena cava occlusion after the Mustard operation.

    A 25-year-old man who had undergone a Mustard repair for complete transposition of the great arteries 21 years previously developed complete occlusion of the superior vena cava and obstruction of the inferior vena cava. Transcatheter recanalization was performed using needle puncture of the superior obstruction followed by stent implantation into both systemic venous pathways with relief of obstructive symptoms.
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8/116. Bilateral frontal haemorrhages associated with continuous spinal analgesia.

    We report a case of intracerebral haemorrhages associated with continuous spinal analgesia. Continuous spinal analgesia is frequently employed for postoperative analgesia in high-risk patients in our institution. The analgesia is administered via a 20 gauge catheter passed through an 18 gauge Tuohy needle (Portex). A 71-year-old man with severe respiratory impairment had an intrathecal catheter placed for postoperative analgesia. He had a difficult postoperative course, including wound dehiscence, and died from respiratory failure some five weeks postoperatively. On day nine postoperatively he had two tonic-clonic seizures and was subsequently found to have developed bilateral frontal intracerebral haemorrhages. There was no previous history of seizures. Although several confounding variables exist, the most likely explanation for the intracerebral event appears to be an association with the dural puncture and intrathecal catheter Possible mechanisms and risk factors are discussed.
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9/116. Intravascular migration of fractured sternal wire presenting with hemoptysis.

    We present a rare complication of median sternotomy in which a segment of fractured sternal wire punctured the heart, embolized to the right lung, and eroded into a bronchus causing massive hemoptysis. It was safely removed through a median sternotomy. Sternal wire fracture or migration is diagnosed easily on chest roentgenograms, but frequently goes unnoticed. Sternal wire failure can be managed nonoperatively; however, repair is indicated if fractured wires are displaced or potentially migratory.
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10/116. Transvenous embolization for vertebral arteriovenous fistula: report of two cases and technical notes.

    BACKGROUND: Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas are relatively rare. Although the common treatment is transarterial embolization, it may be impossible to pass through the fistula (e.g. a microfistula created by a needle puncture). We report two patients with vertebral arteriovenous fistulas due to penetrating trauma who were successfully treated by transvenous embolization. METHOD: We present 2 patients with vertebral arteriovenous fistulas. One patient is presented to demonstrate complications following attempted internal jugular cannulation and the other is presented to demonstrate complications after surgery for a jugular foramen neurinoma. Both patients manifested the sign of a severe bruit. FINDINGS: To identify the fistula point, simultaneous transarterial and transvenous angiography was performed. Using the transvenous approach, microcoils were applied to the fistula and the bruit completely disappeared. Interpretation. Transvenous embolization is a useful technique and a first-choice strategy to treat patients with the vertebral arteriovenous fistula due to penetrating trauma.
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