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1/216. Intrathoracic suture abscess after lobectomy for early lung cancer.

    Intrathoracic suture abscess may occur around sutures on the pleura or in the lung parenchyma, although it is rare to encounter such cases clinically. We report on a 68-year-old woman with an intrathoracic (extrapulmonary) suture abscess, which was discovered on a chest x-ray film one year after right-middle lobectomy for early lung cancer. The abscess was removed surgically, and the postoperative course was uneventful. Pathological examination showed that it was caused by braided polyester sutures.
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2/216. The prevention of irreversible lung changes following reversible phrenic nerve paralysis.

    phrenic nerve paralysis frequently follows operations on the neck such as resection of a cervical or first rib. It all too often passes unrecognised or is incorrectly treated, leading to permanent lung damage which may be severe enough as to result in a functional pneumonectomy. This is particularly unfortunate since the phrenic nerve paralysis is usually temporary. Three case histories are described of reversible paralysis of the phrenic nerve in which, due to prompt diagnosis, the ensuing lung changes were either prevented or immediatley treated. Intermittent assisted respiration with a Monaghan respirator was used to provide nebulised inhalations of mesna several times a day. The method is applicable via a tracheostomy, an endotracheal tube or a simple mouthpiece. The latter is illustrated. The therapy is not hindered by immobilisation of the head and neck and the level of consciousness of the patients is of no importance. Many chest x-rays demonstrate the rapid clearing of the lungs achieved. All three patients were discharged with perfectly normal lungs.
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3/216. ARDS in a patient with homozygous beta-thalassemia due to yersiniosis.

    We report a case of yersinia enterocolitica sepsis syndrome and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in a chronically transfused adolescent with beta-thalassemia. This manifestation of serious Y. enterocolitica infection has not previously been reported. dyspnea, hypoxia, and fever were the principal features of the clinical presentation. The acute onset of respiratory symptoms occurred after appendectomy. Chest radiographs revealed frontal bilateral infiltrates and alveolar consolidation to three quadrants. Y. enterocolitica was identified from blood and intraoperative appendix cultures. Although there was no need for mechanical ventilation, a remarkable persistence of clinical and X-ray findings was noted. Therapy with high levels of oxygen, and intravenous amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam led to a favorable outcome.
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4/216. Primary tumor of the ureteral stump following a nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma.

    BACKGROUND: A 64-year-old man presented with asymptomatic macroscopic hematuria during a follow up for a localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which was treated by a right radical nephrectomy 6 years earlier. methods: x-rays and a ureteroscopic examination revealed multiple papillary tumors filling the right ureteral stump. Surgery was performed to excise the ureteral stump and bladder cuff. The tumor was histologically a grade 2-3 transitional cell carcinoma without muscle invasion. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Only four patients with a ureteral stump carcinoma, including the present case, have been reported after a nephrectomy for RCC. Considering that this patient had a past history of multiple cancers, genetic or environmental factors may have contributed to the etiology of the ureteral stump tumor.
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5/216. Use of postoperative chest x-ray after elective adult tracheotomy.

    Surgeons have been creating tracheotomies since at least 124 AD, when first reported by Asclepiades (Price HC, Postma DS. ear nose Throat J 1983;62:44-59). Intraoperative and postoperative complications specifically associated with this procedure have been well established. The incidence of pneumothorax ranges from 0% to 17%, depending on the age group studied. To evaluate this complication, it is generally accepted that a postoperative chest film should routinely be obtained after a tracheotomy in adult patients. In adult nonemergent tracheotomies, the routine use of a postoperative chest film has a low yield for detecting a pneumothorax in patients without clinical findings of pneumothorax. To evaluate the use of postoperative chest x-ray in adult tracheotomy patients, a retrospective review of tracheotomies performed at the boston Medical Center from January 1994 to June 1996 was undertaken. Data examined consisted of age, sex, surgical indication, urgency, operating service, intraoperative and postoperative complications, difficulty of procedure, anesthetic technique, findings on postoperative chest film, signs and symptoms of pneumothorax, and specific treatment of pneumothorax if present. In total, 250 patients were identified. The main indication for tracheostomy in this study was ventilator dependence, accounting for 77% of the procedures. A complication rate of 11.6% was encountered, with no deaths. postoperative hemorrhage was the most common complication (3.6%). pneumothorax was documented by chest x-ray in 3 (1.2%) patients, 1 of whom had bilateral pneumothoraces. The most common symptom of a pneumothorax was tachycardia, with 8.8% of the patients exhibiting at least 1 episode. Of the 3 cases of pneumothorax in this study, only 1 was clinically relevant and required treatment. Furthermore, the clinical signs and symptoms in this patient clearly supported the diagnosis of pneumothorax before a postoperative chest film was obtained. Thus postoperative chest radiographs did not change the treatment or outcome of any of the patients undergoing a tracheotomy. This suggests that postoperative chest x-ray after adult tracheotomy is not required in routine cases. Chest radiographs should be obtained after emergent procedures, after difficult procedures, or in patients exhibiting signs or symptoms of pneumothorax.
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6/216. Early occurrence of an adenocarcinoma after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a patient with AML.

    Several reports have showed an increased risk of secondary malignancies after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), especially after total body irradiation (TBI). We report on a 39-year-old female who underwent BMT with a matched unrelated donor because of acute myeloid leukemia in second complete remission. Previously, the patient received chemotherapy for induction, consolidation, maintenance and reinduction after diagnosis of relapse. Conditioning regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide and TBI. MTX and CSA was administered for GvHD prophylaxis. Engraftment was confirmed on day 28. Within 6 months following BMT, no complication occurred. Continuous complete remission was demonstrated by repeated bone marrow smears. On day 300 the patient complained of chest pain and dyspnea. X-ray and CT-scan showed thickening of the pleura and pleural effusion. A pleuracarcinosis was diagnosed by cytologic examination of a pleural aspirate. By an open thoracotomy a disseminated inoperable disease became apparent. diagnosis of an adenocarcinoma was confirmed by histologic examination. The patient died 2 months later due to disseminated tumour in complete remission of AML. Solid tumours are rare as secondary malignancies after BMT. Usually the neoplasmas are late events occurring more than 10 years after BMT. In this case predisposing factors such as genetic disposition, long-term smoking, intensive pretransplant chemotherapy, TBI and immunosuppression may have lead to the early secondary malignancy.
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7/216. An unusual procedure for the treatment of simultaneous pericardial and pleural effusions.

    BACKGROUND: Symptomatic posterior pericardial effusion (PE) represents a diagnostic challenge since it is not easy to quantify by echocardiography. In addition, this type of effusion is normally treated by surgery because of the difficulty in drainage. CASE: A 59-year-old male presented a symptomatic circumferential PE following mitral valve substitution. Two days after a successful percutaneous subcostal pericardiocentesis, he reported severe dyspnea with hypotension and pulsus paradoxus. At chest x-rays, he showed a left pleural effusion; echocardiography, also performed from the left posterior axillary line, showed a large posterior PE and a large pleural effusion separated by a membrane. A needle was inserted at the fourth intercostal space 2 cm medially to the left posterior axillary line and advanced into the pleural and then into the pericardial cavity under echocardiographic guidance. Serous-hemorrhagic fluid was drained from the pericardial (800 cc) cavity and, after retraction, from the left pleural cavities (600 cc), with consequent hemodynamic improvement. CONCLUSION: Pleuro-pericardiocentesis may represent a valid alternative to surgery for the treatment of cardiac tamponade due to posterior pericardial effusions, in the peculiar situation characterized by the simultaneous presence of a left pleural effusion. This procedure should be performed by qualified physicians under echographic guidance.
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8/216. Enzymatic dissolution of post-operative haemothorax by purified streptokinase.

    Enzymatic dissolution of haemothorax is highly effective in the evacuation of proteinaceous material from the pleural space. Its use in postcardiotomy haemothorax has not been described. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl with Fallot's Tetralogy diagnosed at birth. She underwent a total correction of Fallot's Tetralogy at 4 years of age. Chest X-ray taken post-operatively showed a large pleural collection in her right haemithorax. Repeated intraplueral infusion of purified streptokinase into the right upper pleural chest tube greatly reduced the extent of the right haemothorax. Enzymatic dissolution of haemothorax by purified streptokinase has proven to be a rapid and successful method of therapy. It has provided an alternative which is less invasive and has a low morbidity.
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9/216. Intraosseous orbitosphenoidal cavernous angioma. Case report.

    Primary orbital intraosseous angiomas are rare. The authors report the case of a 55-year-old man who harbored a multifocal cavernous angioma in an unusual sphenoorbital location. The lesion was responsible for unilateral exophthalmos and blindness. Characteristic imaging findings, which included a honeycomb pattern on plain x-ray films and computerized tomography scans, a heterogeneous high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, and slowly flowing venous lakes on power Doppler ultrasonograms and angiograms, are presented and discussed.
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keywords = ray, x-ray
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10/216. bone resorption of the proximal phalanx after tendon pulley reconstruction.

    A 35-year-old male worker sustained a degloving injury of the left hand. An abdominal flap was used for skin coverage. Tenolysis and reconstruction of the A2 pulley was done using a procedure based on the 3-loop technique, which was modified by putting the tendon loop under the extensor apparatus and periosteum. X-ray revealed hourglass-shaped bone resorption around the proximal phalanx, just under the reconstructed pulley. Diaphyseal narrowing remained present in follow-up x-rays obtained 9 and 10 years later. The remodeling of the resorption was poor. Too much pressure may have caused this bone resorption from the shortened pulley and the circulatory deprivation may have been caused by the dissected periosteum and blocking by the surrounding tendon loop. The degloving injury, which also deprived the digits of a blood supply, may have been an additional underlying risk factor. We recommend that future comparative studies of pulley reconstruction take into account mechanical effectiveness as well as force distribution.
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