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1/62. The prevention of irreversible lung changes following reversible phrenic nerve paralysis.

    phrenic nerve paralysis frequently follows operations on the neck such as resection of a cervical or first rib. It all too often passes unrecognised or is incorrectly treated, leading to permanent lung damage which may be severe enough as to result in a functional pneumonectomy. This is particularly unfortunate since the phrenic nerve paralysis is usually temporary. Three case histories are described of reversible paralysis of the phrenic nerve in which, due to prompt diagnosis, the ensuing lung changes were either prevented or immediatley treated. Intermittent assisted respiration with a Monaghan respirator was used to provide nebulised inhalations of mesna several times a day. The method is applicable via a tracheostomy, an endotracheal tube or a simple mouthpiece. The latter is illustrated. The therapy is not hindered by immobilisation of the head and neck and the level of consciousness of the patients is of no importance. Many chest x-rays demonstrate the rapid clearing of the lungs achieved. All three patients were discharged with perfectly normal lungs.
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2/62. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation facilitates tracheal extubation after laryngotracheal reconstruction in children.

    Tracheal extubation after laryngotracheal reconstruction in children may be complicated by postoperative tracheal edema and pulmonary dysfunction. The replacement of a tracheal tube in this situation may exacerbate the existing injury to the tracheal mucosa, complicating subsequent attempts at tracheal extubation. We present two cases where noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation was employed to treat partial airway obstruction and respiratory failure in two children following laryngotracheal reconstruction. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation served as a bridge between mechanical ventilation via a tracheal tube and spontaneous breathing, providing airway stenting and ventilatory support while tracheal edema and pulmonary dysfunction were resolved. Under appropriate conditions, noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation may be useful in the management of these patients.
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keywords = breathing
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3/62. An unusual fatal complication of low basilar trunk aneurysm surgery: isolated prepontine tension pneumocephalus.

    OBJECTIVE: A case of postoperative tension pneumocephalus after low basilar trunk aneurysm clipping is presented. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated prepontine tension pneumocephalus. BACKGROUND: A 63-year-old woman was admitted for repair of a basilar aneurysm that had caused a subarachnoid hemorrhage. She was cooperative and partially oriented. According to Hunt & Hess classification, she was considered Grade III. METHOD: The aneurysm was clipped, using a right lateral suboccipital craniectomy with the patient in the sitting position. In the early postoperative period, she had no new neurological deficit. However, 2 hours later the patient became lethargic and unresponsive to verbal commands. Emergency CT scan revealed an isolated prepontine tension pneumocephalus with prominent posterior displacement of the pons. She was immediately taken back to surgery. Upon incision of the dura mater, air could be heard escaping under pressure from the posterior fossa cavity. The clip was in its proper position and all arteries were patent. Spontaneous respiration and pupil reflexes returned soon after surgery, but she remained unconscious and died 3 days later. CONCLUSION: We believe that this death was directly attributable to the tension pneumocephalus and the distortion of the pons. Postoperative prepontine tension pneumocephalus, although this is an extremely rare condition, should be considered if a patient deteriorates after basilar aneurysm surgery in the sitting position.
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4/62. Cigarette smoking and transcutaneous oxygen tensions: a case report.

    We report the effects of acute smoking cessation on transcutaneous oxygen (PtcO2) measurements in room air and with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) of an extremity at risk for amputation. The reports on cigarette smoking and PtcO2 do not discuss acute smoking cessation. PtcO2 measured 46 h after smoking cessation increased 10% while breathing room air and 34% with HBO2, as compared to measurements made before smoking cessation.
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keywords = breathing
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5/62. Cerebral dissection from syringomyelia demonstrated using cine magnetic resonance imaging. Case report.

    A 16-year-old boy presented at the authors' emergency department with a sudden deterioration of respiration. He had been paraparetic for 3 years and had become quadriplegic 2 days previously. Magnetic resonance images revealed a Chiari I malformation and a hydromyelic cavity extending from C-1 to T-11. Rostrally, a small cylindrically shaped lesion extended from the cervicomedullary junction to the left semioval center. The patient made a dramatic neurological recovery following suboccipital craniectomy and upper cervical laminectomies with augmentation duraplasties followed by placement of a syringoperitoneal shunt.
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6/62. lingual nerve injury after use of a cuffed oropharyngeal airway.

    The cuffed oropharyngeal airway is a modified Guedel airway and is recommended for anaesthesia in spontaneously breathing patients. To our knowledge this is the first report of transient unilateral lingual nerve palsy after the use of a cuffed oropharyngeal airway to maintain anaesthesia during arthroscopy of an ankle. The aetiology of lingual nerve damage is multifactorial. The possible mechanisms involved include anterior displacement of the mandible during insertion of the cuffed oropharyngeal airway (as in the jaw thrust manoeuvre), compression of the nerve against the mandible, or stretching of the nerve over the hyoglossus by the cuff of the cuffed oropharyngeal airway. We recommend gentle airway manipulation with the use of the cuffed oropharyngeal airway, avoidance of excessive cuff inflation and early recognition of such a complication if it occurs.
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keywords = breathing
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7/62. Anaesthetic management of a patient with myotonic dystrophy.

    A 13-year-old boy with myotonic dystrophy underwent insertion of a percutaneous gastrostomy feeding tube under general anaesthesia. We used a laryngeal mask airway and a spontaneously breathing technique with propofol total intravenous anaesthesia. Postoperative vomiting and aspiration, 12 h after the procedure, subsequently required intubation and ventilation. We discuss the anaesthetic management of this case and review the features of the disease to be considered when contemplating anaesthesia in such patients.
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keywords = breathing
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8/62. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a patient with medulloblastoma.

    We present one adult patient with medulloblastoma who developed polysomnographically documented obstructive sleep apnea after posterior fossa surgery. The sleep apnea worsened in conjunction with clinical and imaging-confirmed neoplastic progression and clinically improved after craniospinal radiation therapy. medulloblastoma or its surgical treatment has never before been implicated in a sleep-related breathing disorder. We discuss possible mechanisms for its occurrence and management implications.
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ranking = 0.39545153653917
keywords = breathing
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9/62. Unusual arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern in an adult presenting with apneic spells and normal pressure hydrocephalus--case report.

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus, lower cranial nerve pareses, and pyramidal and cerebellar signs associated with respiratory disturbances. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 4.7 x 5.4 cm quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst causing severe compression of the tectum and entire brain stem, aqueduct, and cerebellum, associated with moderate dilation of the third and lateral ventricles. Emergency surgery was undertaken due to sudden loss of consciousness and impaired breathing. The cyst was totally removed by midline suboccipital craniotomy in the prone position. Postoperatively, her symptoms improved except for the ataxia and impaired breathing. She was monitored cautiously for over 15 days. CT at discharge on the 18th postoperative day revealed decreased cyst size to 3.9 x 4.1 cm. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of the arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern. The patient died of respiratory problems on the 5th day after discharge. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts may compress the brain stem and cause severe respiratory disturbances, which can be fatal due to apneic spells. patients should be monitored continuously in the preoperative and postoperative period until the restoration of autonomous ventilation is achieved.
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ranking = 0.79090307307835
keywords = breathing
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10/62. Airway complication following functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Difficulty breathing after upper airway surgery requires immediate evaluation and treatment. We present a case of airway compromise after sinus surgery due to edema of the uvula. The patient was admitted for observation overnight and discharged the next day. A discussion of potential airway changes after sinonasal surgery is presented.
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keywords = breathing
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