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1/727. Unaccountable severe hypercalcemia in a patient treated for hypoparathyroidism with dihydrotachysterol.

    This report describes a forty-seven-year-old female patient with a complex medical history. She was suffering from an unspecified interstitial lung disease, papillary thyroid carcinoma which had been treated, hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy for which she was receiving dihydrotachysterol and calcium, and atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure as a result of mitral stenosis. Shortly after mitral valve replacement she developed a severe hypercalcemia (serum calcium 5.95 mmol/l) during a febrile illness. At that time anti-tuberculous agents were also being administered for presumed tuberculosis. The possible mechanisms for this severe elevation of the calcium level are discussed. immobilization, while Paget's bone disease was present, and perhaps enhanced activation of dihydrotachysterol by rifampicin, could have led to increased calcium-release into the circulation. Continuous supplecation of calcium and vitamin d, provoked dehydration and the mechanism of the milk-alkali syndrome also contributed to this extremely high calcium level. It is concluded that hypoparathyroid patients being treated with vitamin d and calcium should be carefully monitored in the case of an intercurrent illness or a change in medication.
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ranking = 1
keywords = stenosis
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2/727. Emergency resection of distal tracheal stenosis. A case report.

    A case of tracheal stenosis secondary to tracheostomy and respirator treatment is presented. The stenosis caused acute respiratory failure, which made immediate surgical intervention mandatory. It is stressed that usually the tracheal lumen is severely reduced when the stenosis causes alarming symptoms. Rational treatment, which must be instituted immediately, consists of resection of the stenotic area and end-to-end anastomosis.
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ranking = 29.11737568057
keywords = tracheal stenosis, stenosis
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3/727. saphenous vein interposition graft for recurrent carotid stenosis after prior endarterectomy and stent placement. Case report.

    Although the use of carotid artery stents is increasing, the management of recurrent stenosis after their placement is undefined. The authors report on a patient who underwent two left carotid endarterectomies followed by left carotid angioplasty and stent placement for recurrent stenosis. A third symptomatic recurrence was subsequently managed by placement of a saphenous vein interposition graft from the common carotid artery to the distal cervical internal carotid artery. The patient remained without hemispheric or retinal ischemia at his 5-month follow-up visit. Interposition grafting should be considered as a treatment option for carotid restenosis after initial endarterectomy and stent placement.
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ranking = 7
keywords = stenosis
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4/727. Subacute ischaemic proctitis: a rare condition requiring extensive rectal surgery.

    Subacute ischaemic proctitis is a rare condition. We describe the case of a 60-year-old male patient who developed, after aortic aneurysm repair, a transient ischaemic colitis that totally healed without sequelae. He eventually developed symptoms of severe proctitis. Investigations identified a stenosis of the mid rectum, while the upper rectum was inflammatory. On angiogram, there was a poor blood flow through the Riolan's arcade and a stenosis of the proximal aorto-graft anastomosis. diagnosis of subacute ischaemic proctitis due to poor blood supply through the internal iliac arteries was made. Anti-inflammatory drugs and dilations were inefficient. A subtotal proctectomy with low colorectal anastomosis was required. On pathological specimen, the lesions were strongly suggestive of an ischaemic process. The patient had an excellent recovery and was asymptomatic 8 months after the operation.
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ranking = 2
keywords = stenosis
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5/727. Extended laryngofissure in the management of subglottic stenosis in the young child: a preliminary report.

    The child with subglottic stenosis and a tracheotomy is a management problem. To date, a consistent method for successful and expeditious correction of the primary lesion to permit decannulation has eluded clinicians. The child is tracheotomized and thus frequently hospitalized for a lengthy period. Personal development and family relationships are adversely affected and the mortality rate during this period of cannulation is significant. During the past eighteen months in an attempt to achieve earlier decannulation, three children with subglottic stenosis have undergone a surgical procedure in which division of the anterior and posterior aspects of the cricoid ring are the key surgical maneuvers.
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ranking = 6
keywords = stenosis
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6/727. Directional coronary atherectomy in acute myocardial infarction.

    To date, application of directional coronary atherectomy (DCA) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has had limited reports. In eleven patients with AMI, DCA was applied. In three of these patients, DCA was used as a stand-alone procedure without use of thrombolytic agents. In each case a guidewire was placed across the stenosis, and in eight patients balloon angioplasty was utilized as a predilating modality prior to DCA. The thrombolytic agent urokinase was utilized in five of these eight patients, either before, during, or after angioplasty and/or DCA. DCA success (defined as ability to cross the lesion, reduction of less than or equal to 20% in stenosis and thrombolysis--when a thrombus is present) was achieved in 10 of 11 patients. One patient had persistent abrupt reclosure of an LAD lesion, accompanied by hemodynamic compromise, necessitating intra-aortic balloon pump insertion and subsequent emergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Final angiograms revealed residual stenoses less than or equal to 20%, and adequate thrombolysis. Significant cardiac events were limited to one emergent CABG, Q wave MI in four patients, and non-Q wave MI in two patients. Clinically all eleven patients improved, survived the AMI/CABG, and were discharged. This clinical experience demonstrates the feasibility and safety of DCA application in selected patients who experience acute myocardial infarction.
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ranking = 2
keywords = stenosis
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7/727. Transient mutism resolving into cerebellar speech after brain stem infarction following a traumatic injury of the vertebral artery in a child.

    A 3.7-year-old girl presented with an anterior neck injury followed by progressive subcutaneous emphysema and loss of consciousness. After resuscitation, a laceration on the first tracheal cartilage was closed surgically. As she was extubated one week later, she was found to have right hemiplegia and muteness. MRI showed a T2-bright lesion on the tegmentum of the left midbrain down to the upper pons. Right vertebral angiography disclosed an intimal flap with stenosis at the C3 vertebral level presumably caused by a fracture of the right C3 transverse process later confirmed in a cervical 3D-CT scan. Her muteness lasted for 10 days, after which she began to utter some comprehensible words in a dysarthric fashion. Her neurological deficits showed improvement within 3 months of her admission. Transient mutism after brain stem infarction has not been reported previously. We discuss the anatomical bases for this unusual reversible disorder in the light of previous observations and conclude that bilateral damage to the dentatothalamocortical fibers at the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle may have been responsible for her transient mutism.
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ranking = 1
keywords = stenosis
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8/727. Damus-Kaye-Stansel connections in children with previously transected pulmonary arteries.

    BACKGROUND: In patients with a univentricular arteriovenous connection, transection of the main pulmonary artery may be performed as part of a bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt or fontan procedure. The proximal stump of the pulmonary artery may remain in the systemic circulation. In cases with a discordant ventriculoarterial connection, subsequent restriction of the bulboventricular foramen may lead to subaortic stenosis. The subaortic stenosis can be corrected in some patients by directing the systemic flow through a combined nonobstructed aortopulmonary outlet, as in the Damus-Kaye-Stansel connection. Previous closure of the pulmonary artery has been considered by some investigators to be a relative contraindication to the Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure, unless an allograft root can be added to the circuit after excision of the closed pulmonary stump. methods: Three patients with previously transected pulmonary arteries underwent a modified Damus-Kaye-Stansel connection using the native pulmonary valve and the proximal pulmonary artery stump. RESULTS: The native pulmonary valves have functioned well despite thrombus formation in the proximal stump in 2 patients before Damus conversion. All 3 patients are alive and well after 108, 19, and 3 months, with competent nonobstructed ventriculoarterial connections. CONCLUSIONS: If transection and closure of the pulmonary artery as part of a previous palliation has spared the pulmonary valve, then the native pulmonary outlet might be used for a safe Damus-Kaye-Stansel connection.
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ranking = 2
keywords = stenosis
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9/727. Fatal late multiple emboli after endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Case report.

    BACKGROUND: The short term experience of endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) seems promising but long term randomised data are lacking. Consequently, cases treated by endovascular procedures need to be closely followed for potential risks and benefits. CASE REPORT: A 70 year-old mildly hypertensive male without previous or present arteriosclerotic, pulmonary, or urological manifestations was subjected to endovascular treatment after his mass-screening diagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysm had expanded to above 5 cm in diameter, the aneurysm having been found by CT-scanning and arteriography to be endovascularly treatable. A Vanguard bifurcated aortic stent graft was implanted under epidural/spinal anaesthesia and covered by cephalosporine and heparin (8000 IE) protection. Apart from treatment of a groin haematoma and stenosis of the left superficial femoral artery, the postoperative period presented no problems. A few days before the monthly follow-up visit, the patient developed uraemia, gangrene of one foot and dyspnoea. blood glucose and LDH was elevated. Deterioration led to death a month and a half after stent implantation. autopsy showed extraordinary large, extensive soft, brown vegetations in the lower part of the thoracic aorta above the properly infrarenally-placed stent. Microscopic examination revealed multiple microemboli in the liver, spleen, pancreas, intestines, testes, and especially the kidneys. DISCUSSION: Early death from microemboli after aortic stent implantation has been reported. However, the present case developed fatal multiple microemboli so late that they could not have originated from the excluded mural thrombus. The sudden death of an otherwise healthy man of extensive microemboli is difficult to explain. The stent application may have altered the proximal flow and wall movements disposing to microemboli in the case of vegetations.
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ranking = 1
keywords = stenosis
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10/727. Restenosis following carotid endarterectomy--clinical profiles and pathological findings.

    Restenosis following carotid endarterectomy is not a rare condition. Among 122 endarterectomies we experienced, five restenoses (4.1%) were encountered and treated by the second surgery. The present report clarifies the clinical profiles and pathological findings of restenosis following carotid endarterectomy. Mean age of restenosis group (59 years old) was not significantly different from the group without restenosis (62 years old). Average duration between the first endarterectomy and the second surgery was 17 months (8-30 months). Initial symptoms were transient ischemic attack in three sides, minor stroke in one side, and asymptomatic in one. Degree of stenosis was tight (> or = 90%) in two and moderate (70-89%) in three. It is interesting to note that no ulcer was noted in the first endarterectomy specimen. At surgery for restenosis, two cases had symptoms and another two cases were asymptomatic, though all had neck bruits. Four of five lesions were treated by short venous graft from common carotid artery to distal internal carotid artery and another lesion was treated by second endarterectomy and Dacron patch graft. pathology was studied in four and all showed myointimal hyperplasia. Three of four restenosis tissues showed mutant form p53 by immunohistochemistry. The present study indicates that restenosis following carotid endarterectomy is not a rare status. Short venous bypass across the stenotic portion is the treatment of choice. Monoclonal growth of smooth muscle with mutant form p53 might be related to the restenosis.
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ranking = 13
keywords = stenosis
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