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11/727. Subaortic obstruction after the use of an intracardiac baffle to tunnel the left ventricle to the aorta.

    Postoperative hemodynamic studies in five patients document subaortic obstruction after surgical repair utilizing an intracardiac baffle to establish continuity between the left ventricle and the aorta. Four of the patients had a Rastelli procedure for D-transposition of the great arteries with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis; one patient had repair of double outlet right ventricle with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis. The left ventricular outflow was shown to be a long narrow tunnel by angiography in four of five patients and by echocardiography in one patient. Resting aortic peak systolic pressure gradient ranged from 10 to 42 mm Hg (mean 24). The obstruction was localized to the proximal end of the left ventricule to aorta tunnel (i.e., at the site of ventricular septal defect) in five patients. One patient with a gradient of 42 mm Hg has angina and decreased exercise tolerance. Subaortic obstruction is a newly described sequelae after the Rastelli procedure for transposition or repair of double outlet right ventricle. The obstruction may be hemodynamically significant and should be searched for at postoperative cardiac catheterization.
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ranking = 1
keywords = stenosis
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12/727. The hemodynamics of steal syndrome and its treatment.

    A 61-year-old man developed steal syndrome after creation of a transposed basilic vein arteriovenous fistula (AVF) resulting in rest pain and ischemic ulcers in the fingertips. Our initial surgically created stenosis reduced the diameter by 32% and the area by 56%, and increased the radial artery pressure from 52 to 78 mmHg, with relief of symptoms. Within 3 weeks his symptoms reappeared. Repeat measurements did not explain his return of symptoms. A second area of stenosis was created in the AVF, with a diameter reduction of 75%, and an area reduction of 94%. His symptoms resolved, and his ulcers healed. The hemodynamics of the AVF and the steal syndrome were evaluated by duplex imaging and Doppler pressure assessment. A greater stenosis increased the radial artery pressure from 78 to 140 mmHg while maintaining flow through the AVF. Rather than increasing the degree of stenosis at the first site, we created a second area of stenosis. Hemodynamically, this would be additive to the first without the risk of creating a high-grade stenosis that could thrombose the AVF. Increasing the resistance in the AVF will decrease flow in the AVF and, ultimately, increase flow to the hand.
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ranking = 3
keywords = stenosis
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13/727. Percutaneous revascularization modalities in heart transplant recipients.

    Accelerated allograft vasculopathy significantly limits the survival of heart transplant recipients. The prevalence of allograft coronary artery disease is as high as 18% by 1 year and 50% by 5 years following heart transplant. heart failure and sudden cardiac death are the two most common clinical presentations. In heart transplant recipients with severe, discrete focal allograft vascular disease, percutaneous balloon angioplasty is a viable palliative option. However, its application is limited by a significant restenosis rate and progression of allograft disease in nontreated segments. Diffuse disease with tapering of vessels may be approached by debulking devices. Emerging revascularization modalities for focal stenoses and some of the diffuse tapering vessels include coronary stents, rotational atherectomy, various wavelength lasers, and, to a lesser extent, directional atherectomy. Conceivably, stents will reduce restenosis rates related to focal, discrete plaques; yet it is unknown whether they will be efficacious in short- and long-term treatment of diffusely diseased segments affected by allograft disease. Accurate assessment of clinical outcomes and long-term evaluation is imperative prior to acceptance of these devices as fundamental interventional tools for treatment of allograft coronary artery disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = stenosis
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14/727. Revascularization of a thrombosed, previously stented aorto-renal graft using combined directional atherectomy and AngioJet thrombectomy.

    We report an interesting case with bilateral PTFE aorto-renal grafts of which one graft underwent balloon angioplasty and stenting for proximal stenosis. Combined debulking by AngioJet thrombectomy and Simpsons directional atherectomy was performed within the stent following reocclusion of the graft 9 months later.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = stenosis
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15/727. Necrotizing fasciitis of the pharynx following adenotonsillectomy.

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare clinical entity in the head and neck region. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis following adenotonsillectomy in a previously healthy 2-year-old girl. The child presented in a septic state with impending airway compromise. Computed tomography (CT) showed massive soft tissue widening with air in the retropharyngeal, parapharyngeal and retromandibular spaces. Intraoperative exploration showed necrosis of the posterior pharyngeal wall from the skull base to the cricoid, with extension into the parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal spaces. Cultures from the debrided tissues grew two aerobes and three anaerobes. Management involved airway support, surgical debridement, broad spectrum antibiotic coverage and nutritional support. The patient ultimately developed nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal stenosis requiring tracheostomy and gastrostomy tube placement. This case report highlights an extremely rare complication of adenotonsillectomy.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = stenosis
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16/727. Ischemic colitis with chronic stenotic evolution.

    The authors describes a case of ischemic chronic stenosis of colon after aneurysmectomy. They consider eziopatogenesis, clinical aspects and differential diagnosis with other causes of large bowel stenosis. They illustrate on therapeutic sequence after examination of recent literature.
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ranking = 1
keywords = stenosis
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17/727. Symptomatic venous hypertension because of occult iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis: a report of two cases.

    Two 25-year-old males with symptomatic venous hypertension (venous claudication, n = 1; swollen leg, n = 1) were evaluated for iliofemoral venous occlusive disease. One patient had a common femoral vein/external iliac vein occlusion with no history of deep vein thrombosis or trauma. The second patient had an acute deep vein thrombosis superimposed on a chronic external iliac vein stenosis. No source of extrinsic venous compression was identified in either patient. Venous reconstruction with vein bypass (patient no. 1) and vein patch angioplasty (patient no. 2) led to resolution of their hypertensive symptoms. Intraoperative examination of the involved vein segments revealed chronic changes consistent with a prior occult deep vein thrombosis in both patients. Occult iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis in young healthy males is rarely seen. The acute deep vein thrombosis may manifest minimal or no symptoms but it can lead to chronic venous occlusive disease and serious post-phlebitic morbidity. In this context, these two cases are discussed with a review of the pertinent literature.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = stenosis
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18/727. Stent implantation to create interatrial communications in patients with complex congenital heart disease.

    A restrictive interatrial communication can complicate the management of complex congenital heart disease. The purpose of this report is to present a new technique to achieve a patent and reliable interatrial communication by using an endovascular stent. A stent was successfully implanted across a fenestrated extracardiac conduit in two patients with low cardiac output after Fontan operations and across the interatrial septum in a patient with double inlet left ventricle and severe left atrioventricular stenosis. The procedures were uncomplicated and all patients showed immediate hemodynamic improvement. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 47:310-313, 1999.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = stenosis
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19/727. cardiopulmonary bypass on a patient with malaria.

    There are special considerations when performing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on a patient with malaria. A 70-year-old female with a recent history of severe aortic stenosis was scheduled to undergo elective aortic valve replacement. One week prior to surgery, the patient developed shaking chills and fever, with a positive malaria smear. An extensive literature search was undertaken to determine the effect of CPB on a patient with active malaria, but no prior reference was found. One major concern was the lysis of red blood cells while on bypass. The surgery was performed uneventfully, following 2 weeks of treatment with primaquine phosphate.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = stenosis
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20/727. Congenital esophageal stenosis.

    We report 6 new cases of congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) that presented to us with special diagnostic and management problems and review the literature on this subject. gastroesophageal reflux and achalasia are important differential diagnoses of esophageal stenosis, they may be associated with CES making appropriate management even more difficult. Treatment is also controversial, ranging from simple dilatation to segmental resection. CES should be present in every pediatric surgeon's mind should dysphagia occur on the introduction of semisolid food or esophageal food impaction, with a segmental stenosis demonstrated at esophagogram even when more obvious diagnoses are evoked.
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ranking = 3.5
keywords = stenosis
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