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1/1259. akinetic mutism after fourth ventricle choroid plexus papilloma: treatment with a dopamine agonist.

    BACKGROUND: akinetic mutism is a behavioral state wherein a patient seems to be awake but does not move or speak. Several patients are reported to have developed mutism after posterior fossa surgery. We present a patient who developed akinetic mutism after total excision of a choroid plexus papilloma of the fourth ventricle, and who was treated with bromocriptine. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 18-year-old woman was admitted with akinetic mutism, which had developed 6 days after posterior fossa surgery. She had had no neurologic deficit in the first 5 days after surgery and could communicate with her family. Despite antioedematous therapy and daily lumbar punctures to drain cerebrospinal fluid, there was no clinical improvement after she entered the akinetic mute state. brain magnetic resonance revealed ventriculomegaly; brain single photon emission computed tomography revealed bilateral reduction of perfusion in the frontal region. Because daily lumbar drainage did not result in clinical improvement, shunt placement was not considered. bromocriptine therapy was begun at a dose of 2x2.5 mg; 24 hours later, the patient started to speak and move her upper extremities. Further improvement occurred over the following week when the dose was increased to 3x2.5 mg. bromocriptine was replaced with a placebo to determine whether the neurologic improvement was caused by the medicine. The patient's neurologic status deteriorated progressively; therefore, bromocriptine was restarted and she was discharged from the hospital. During the 6 months of follow-up, the patient has remained in good health. CONCLUSIONS: The etiology of akinetic mutism is not clear. Monoaminergic pathways, particularly dopaminergic cell groups, are most probably involved in this syndrome, because bromocriptine has a dramatic effect on these patients, as demonstrated in our case.
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keywords = ventricle
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2/1259. Intracerebral pneumatocele: an unusual complication following intraventricular drainage in case of benign intracranial hypertension.

    The development of an intracerebral pneumatocele following ventricular catheterization for benign intracranial hypertension is described. The importance of skull radiography in the diagnosis of this previously unreported complication ist emphasized. This case demonstrates that air can accumulate without the need to implicate increased pharyngeal pressure, and despite raised intracranial pressure.
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ranking = 0.53212579405931
keywords = cerebral
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3/1259. Venous gas embolism during endoscopy.

    Venous gas embolism is a rare but serious complication of laparoscopic and endoscopic procedures. We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman with a strictured hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis who was treated with transabdominal endoscopic balloon dilation. During the procedure, she suffered a venous gas embolus with immediate cardiovascular collapse. After treatment with pressors, electrical cardioversion, and multiple aspirations of the right ventricle, the patient recovered fully. We reviewed all reported cases of venous gas embolism during endoscopy over the past 30 years and identified multiple risk factors. We suggest precautions to minimize future complications in patients at increased risk.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = ventricle
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4/1259. Anatomical and embryological considerations in the repair of a large vertex cephalocele. Case report.

    The case of a neonate with a large vertex cephalocele is presented. The anatomical features of this anomaly were evaluated by means of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Fusion of the thalami, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and failure of adequate formation of the interhemispheric fissure were characteristics of the major cerebral anomalies associated with the cephalocele. The absence of a falx in the midline, a split configuration of the superior sagittal sinus, and a dysgenetic tentorium with a concomitant abnormal venous drainage pattern were found in association with a large dorsal cyst. Repair of the anomaly was undertaken on the 3rd postnatal day. A cerebrospinal fluid shunt was required to treat hydrocephalus on Day 30. The child is well at age 3 years, but with significant developmental delay. The pathogenesis of this vertex cephalocele relates to semilobar holoprosencephaly and dorsal cyst formation. In addition, a disturbance in the separation of the diencephalic portion of the neural tube from the surface ectoderm or skin during the final phases of neurulation had occurred to help create the large cephalocele. Detailed preoperative imaging studies and awareness of the embryology and anatomy of this lesion facilitated the repair of the cephalocele. The prognosis of the child is determined not only by the presence of hydrocephalus, but also by the number of associated major cerebral anomalies. Options for treatment are discussed.
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ranking = 0.21285031762372
keywords = cerebral
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5/1259. Intraoperative left ventricular perforation with false aneurysm formation.

    Two cases of perforation of the left ventricle during mitral valve replacement are described. In the first case there was perforation at the site of papillary muscle excision and this was recognized and successfully treated. However, a true ventricular aneurysm developed at the repair site. One month after operation rupture of the left ventricle occurred at a second and separate site on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring. This resulted in a false aneurysm which produced a pansystolic murmur mimicking mitral regurgitation. Both the true and the false aneurysm were successfully repaired. In the second case perforation occurred on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring and was successfully repaired. However, a false ventricular aneurysm developed and ruptured into the left atrium producing severe, but silent, mitral regurgitation. This was recognized and successfully repaired. The implications of these cases are discussed.
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keywords = ventricle
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6/1259. Left ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit in treatment of transposition of great arteries, restrictive ventricular septal defect, and acquired pulmonary atresia.

    Progressive cyanosis after banding of the pulmonary artery in infancy occurred in a child with transposition of the great arteries and a ventricular septal defect, and a Blalock-Taussig shunt operation had to be performed. At the time of correction a segment of pulmonary artery between the left ventricle and the band was found to be completely occluded so that continuity between the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery could not be restored. A Rastelli type of operation was not feasible as the ventricular septal defect was sited low in the muscular septum. Therefore, in addition to Mustard's operation, a Dacron conduit was inserted from the left ventricle to the main pulmonary artery to relieve the obstruction. Postoperative cardiac catheterization with angiocardiography indicated a satisfactory haemodynamic result. The patient remains well 11 months after the operation. This operation, a left ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit, may be used as an alternative procedure in patients with transposition of the great arteries, intact interventricular septum, and obstruction to the left ventricular outflow, if the obstruction cannot be adequately relieved.
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ranking = 1.6
keywords = ventricle
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7/1259. A surgical method for treating anterior skull base injuries.

    skull base surgery was performed on 18 patients with anterior skull base injuries. The operative technique consisted of opening the operative field in the anterior skull base via a coronal incision and a frontal craniotomy, debridement of the anterior skull base including the injured dura mater, performing drainage from the anterior skull base to the nasal cavity by ethmoidectomy, and reconstructing the resulting dural and anterior skull base defect using bilateral temporal musculo-pericranial flaps and a bone graft. Seventeen of the 18 patients recovered without any complications, although epidural abscesses in the anterior skull base had been present in four patients at the time of the operation. Only one patient developed an epidural abscess in the anterior skull base after the operation. None of the patients developed any other complications including meningitis, recurrent liquorrhoea or cerebral herniation. Satisfactory aesthetic results were achieved in 16 of the 18 patients. In one patient, uneven deformity of the forehead, which was caused by the partial sequestration of the frontal bone due to postoperative infection, was observed. In another patient, a depressed deformity of the forehead, which was caused by the partial loss of the frontalis muscle following the use of the frontal musculo-pericranial flap instead of a temporal musculo-pericranial flap, was observed. Anterior skull base reconstruction using bilateral temporal musculo-pericranial flaps provides excellent results in terms of patient recovery and aesthetics.
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ranking = 0.10642515881186
keywords = cerebral
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8/1259. Damus-Kaye-Stansel connections in children with previously transected pulmonary arteries.

    BACKGROUND: In patients with a univentricular arteriovenous connection, transection of the main pulmonary artery may be performed as part of a bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt or fontan procedure. The proximal stump of the pulmonary artery may remain in the systemic circulation. In cases with a discordant ventriculoarterial connection, subsequent restriction of the bulboventricular foramen may lead to subaortic stenosis. The subaortic stenosis can be corrected in some patients by directing the systemic flow through a combined nonobstructed aortopulmonary outlet, as in the Damus-Kaye-Stansel connection. Previous closure of the pulmonary artery has been considered by some investigators to be a relative contraindication to the Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure, unless an allograft root can be added to the circuit after excision of the closed pulmonary stump. methods: Three patients with previously transected pulmonary arteries underwent a modified Damus-Kaye-Stansel connection using the native pulmonary valve and the proximal pulmonary artery stump. RESULTS: The native pulmonary valves have functioned well despite thrombus formation in the proximal stump in 2 patients before Damus conversion. All 3 patients are alive and well after 108, 19, and 3 months, with competent nonobstructed ventriculoarterial connections. CONCLUSIONS: If transection and closure of the pulmonary artery as part of a previous palliation has spared the pulmonary valve, then the native pulmonary outlet might be used for a safe Damus-Kaye-Stansel connection.
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ranking = 0.062970696404855
keywords = foramen
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9/1259. Complications of treatment: pulmonary embolism following craniotomy for meningioma.

    We present two case reports of patients who suffered a pulmonary embolism (PE) in the week following surgery for removal of a meningioma. Both patients were anticoagulated in the first week following surgery, and as a result, both suffered intracerebral bleeds requiring further surgery. An inferior vena caval (IVC) filter was then used in both patients to prevent further embolic events. Following our experience, we believe that it is dangerous to use intravenous anticoagulation within 6 days of cranial surgery for removal of a meningioma. We have reviewed the literature concerning the present guidelines for thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients requiring neurosurgery and believe that consideration of subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin should now be given to all patients requiring craniotomy for removal of a meningioma.
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ranking = 0.10642515881186
keywords = cerebral
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10/1259. Hypoxemia after prior cardiac surgery due to interatrial shunting and its treatment with a novel transcatheter occlusion device.

    We describe two unusual cases of hypoxemia after cardiac surgery due to intracardiac right-to-left shunting through a patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect. The interatrial defects were successfully occluded by placement of a novel, transcather device, the Angelwings Atrial Septal Defect Occluder Device, with resolution of hypoxemia.
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ranking = 0.062970696404855
keywords = foramen
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