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1/869. Three cases of patella fracture in 1,320 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft.

    Between September 1992 and December 1996 we reviewed three transverse displaced fractures of the patella occuring in 1,320 ACL reconstructions using bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. All the patients suffered local injury to the donor knee between 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Immediate rigid fixation using single or double anterior tension band allowed early mobilization and full weight bearing. Between 6 and 9 months after fracture, the screws and the wire were removed and the grafts tested. Results of the pivot shift and Lachman test under anesthesia were negative and arthroscopic visualisation showed the graft to be intact. Postoperative assessment included the Lysholm and Tegner scales, the International knee documentation Committee Evaluation form (IKDC), KT-1000 arthrometer, and isokinetic dynamometer strength testing. No significant differences in the final outcome were noted between reconstructions complicated by patellar fracture and normal ACL reconstructions.
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2/869. The clinical superiority of continuous exposure versus short-pulsed carbon dioxide laser exposures for the treatment of pearly penile papules.

    Treatment of pearly penile papules was performed both with a conventional continuous-wave (CW) and a newer generation high energy pulsed carbon dioxide laser. When compared to the short pulsed laser, the CW laser, using relatively low power densities, provided superior hemostasis and improved visualization of the operative field. Despite the increase in thermal injury, wound healing was not compromised. The results of this case report support the CO2 laser in CW mode as the infrared laser treatment of choice for exophytic lesions with increased vascularity.
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3/869. Managing a dropped nucleus during the phacoemulsification learning curve.

    Three patients had a pars plana vitrectomy to remove retained nuclei within 72 hours after phacoemulsification performed by a surgeon making the transition from extra-capsular cataract extraction to phacoemulsification. After vitrectomy, the nuclei were brought to the midvitreous cavity from the retinal surface with a posterior segment phacofragmenter, emulsified, and completely removed. Then, a posterior chamber intraocular lens was implanted in the sulcus through the previous cataract surgery incision and remained well centered postoperatively. postoperative complications included cystoid macular edema in 1 patient and choroidal detachment in another. No other complications were detected. Final visual acuity ranged from 20/60 to 20/30.
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4/869. Delayed postoperative CSF rhinorrhea of intrasellar arachnoid cyst.

    CSF rhinorrhea due to a transsphenoidal approach usually follows accidental or intentional arachnoid opening. We report a patient with an intrasellar arachnoid cyst, who developed delayed onset of CSF rhinorrhea. A sixty-two-year-old man presented with bitemporal type visual field defect for the last 3 years. With the diagnosis of arachnoid cyst or Rathke's cleft cyst, based on MRI findings of intra-and supra-sellar cyst with CSF intensity, he successfully underwent transsphenoidal surgery without evidence of intra-operative CSF leakage. He developed CSF rhinorrhea one week later. This needed another operation for sellar floor repair. The pathomechanism of this delayed onset is explained as follows. Incomplete or oneway communication of subarachnoid space to cyst cavity, unrecognized during surgery, might cause delayed onset of CSF rhinorrhea. By using MRI, identification of the residual gland, which was compressed posteriorly, is useful for differentiating an arachnoid cyst from other cystic lesions. In highly suspect cases, even without evidence of intra-operative CSF leakage, peri-operative measures to prevent occurrence of postoperative CSF rhinorrhea are required.
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5/869. Suprasellar cystic germinoma.

    We report on a germinoma in the suprasellar region, which had multiple large cystic components. A 13-year-old girl with disturbed visual acuity and growth retardation was admitted to our hospital for treatment of an intracranial tumor. The lesion was difficult to diagnose as a germinoma preoperatively, because of its radiographic characteristics. Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor was a germinoma. Surgery, chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide, and radiotherapy (30 Gy) were successful in inducing complete remission of the tumor. The patient's endocrine status remained normal, except for a low GH concentration and diabetes insipidus.
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6/869. holmium: YAG laser endoureterotomy in the treatment of ureteroenteric strictures following orthotopic urinary diversion.

    The management of ureteroenteric strictures in patients who have undergone urinary diversion can be challenging. In those patients with an orthotopic neobladder, anastomotic ureteral strictures can be treated endoscopically using a retrograde or antegrade approach. The availability of small (7.5F) flexible ureteroscopes, as well as the use of the holmium laser has facilitated the ability to precisely incise the stricture under direct endoscopic visualization (endoureterotomy). We describe our technique for laser endoureterotomy in patients with ureteroenteric strictures following orthotopic urinary diversion.
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7/869. When the left brain is not right the right brain may be left: report of personal experience of occipital hemianopia.

    OBJECTIVES: To make a personal report of a hemianopia due to an occipital infarct, sustained by a professor of neurology. methods: Verbatim observation of neurological phenomena recorded during the acute illness. RESULTS: Hemianopia, visual hallucinations, and non-occipital deficits without extraoccipital lesions on MRI, are described and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Hemianopia, due to an occipital infarct, without alexia, is not a disability which precludes a normal professional career. Neurorehabilitation has not been necessary.
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8/869. Occipitocervicothoracic fixation for spinal instability in patients with neoplastic processes.

    OBJECT: Occipitocervicothoracic (OCT) fixation and fusion is an infrequently performed procedure to treat patients with severe spinal instability. Only three cases have been reported in the literature. The authors have retrospectively reviewed their experience with performing OCT fixation in patients with neoplastic processes, paying particular attention to method, pain relief, and neurological status. methods: From July 1994 through July 1998, 13 of 552 patients who underwent a total of 722 spinal operations at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have required OCT fixation for spinal instability caused by neoplastic processes (12 of 13 patients) or rheumatoid arthritis (one of 13 patients). Fixation was achieved by attaching two intraoperatively contoured titanium rods to the occiput via burr holes and Luque wires or cables; to the cervical spinous processes with wisconsin wires; and to the thoracic spine with a combination of transverse process and pedicle hooks. Crosslinks were used to attain additional stability. In all patients but one arthrodesis was performed using allograft. At a follow-up duration of 1 to 45 months (mean 14 months), six of the 12 patients with neoplasms remained alive, whereas the other six patients had died of malignant primary disease. There were no deaths related to the surgical procedure. Postoperatively, one patient experienced respiratory insufficiency, and two patients required revision of rotational or free myocutaneous flaps. All patients who presented with spine-based pain experienced a reduction in pain, as measured by a visual analog scale for pain. All patients who were neurologically intact preoperatively remained so; seven of seven patients with neurological impairment improved; and six of seven patients improved one Frankel grade. There were no occurrences of instrumentation failure or hardware-related complications. In one patient a revision of the instrumentation was required 13.5 months following the initial surgery for progression of malignant fibrous histiosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, OCT fixation is an effective means of attaining stabilization that can provide pain relief and neurological preservation or improvement.
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9/869. Bilateral macular hemorrhage after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    BACKGROUND: This is the first report of a bilateral submacular hemorrhage after LASIK surgery in an extreme myo pic patient. A 31-year-old man underwent bilateral surgery for correction of -16.75 0.75x70 degrees and -16.50 0.50x55 degrees. methods: Case report. RESULTS: One day after surgery the patient's uncorrected visual acuity was in the 20/50 range OU and by 17 days after surgery his visual acuity had declined to 20/200 range. Fundus examination showed multifocal subretinal macular and posterior pole hemorrhages. fluorescein angiography showed some macular lesions compatible with lacquer cracks. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative and postoperative fundus examination is important to detect this phenomenon. patients should be informed of this rare complication.
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10/869. The first case report of the use of a zoom videoendoscope for the evaluation of small bowel graft mucosa in a human after intestinal transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Control of allograft rejection remains the most difficult dilemma in intestinal transplantation. Standard endoscopic surveillance to date has not been always accurate in the diagnosis of rejection. We describe the first application of a zoom video endoscope in monitoring graft mucosa in humans after intestinal transplantation. METHOD: A zoom video endoscope, which can magnify the image up to 100-fold, was used in this study. The patient was a 31-year-old man who received an isolated intestinal transplant. Surveillance endoscopy with the zoom video endoscope was performed through the ileostomy. Endoscopic biopsies were done at the same time. RESULTS: The zoom video endoscope showed the microscopic architecture of the graft mucosa such as villi and crypts with outstanding quality. We found that an enlargement of the crypt areas appeared to correlate with morphologic changes of early rejection. This finding was reversed with the treatment of rejection. CONCLUSIONS: The zoom video endoscope successfully showed the detailed information of intestinal mucosa. The ability to visualize a more representative view of the graft mucosa could lead to better detection of early rejection. A greater experience with this unique method will provide more accurate assessment of the intestinal allograft.
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