Cases reported "Postoperative Hemorrhage"

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1/6. Interventional therapy of vascular complications caused by the hemostatic puncture closure device angio-seal.

    The hemostatic puncture closure device Angio-Seal is a quick, safe, and easy-to-use system, allowing rapid sealing of the vascular access site following coronary angiography and interventional procedures. It is advantageous for patients in whom early mobilization is desired and may therefore decrease hospital costs. Despite the documented low complication rate, there are some specific problems. Reporting on five cases, we describe problems in diagnosis and possible interventional therapy of Angio-Seal-associated complications such as stenosis, occlusion, or peripheral embolism. Our experience led to the concept of precise diagnosis in any patient with leg symptoms and early interventional treatment with the aim of complete removal of the intra-arterial parts of the Angio-Seal device. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment increases the risk of additional thrombotic occlusion. Spontaneous dissolution of the Angio-Seal sponge limits interventional possibilities of complete removal. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 49:142-147, 2000.
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2/6. Percutaneous management of a hepatic artery aneurysm: bleeding after liver transplantation.

    In this article we present an unusual case of hepatic artery aneurysm bleeding due to a hepatic artery thrombosis after liver transplantation. The patient developed a recurrent hepatic artery thrombosis leading to severe graft failure in four consecutive liver transplantations. While being evaluated for a fifth transplant, stabilization of the clinical situation was attempted by interventional therapy. The first intervention was to place a stent into the hepatic artery to prevent further ischemic damage. This failed to improve graft function, but unfortunately led to the development of a pseudoaneurysm at the distal end with a subsequent rupture into the biliary tree. Bleeding was treated successfully by direct puncture and coil embolization of the aneurysm. In addition, the patient demonstrated a hemodynamically relevant portal vein stenosis on the CT scan. Stenting of the portal vein markedly improved graft function. After extensive investigations, a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria was found to be the underlying cause of the recurrent hepatic artery thrombosis. Here we suggest that hepatic artery aneurysm bleeding is a rare but potentially fatal complication that can be successfully treated by percutaneous coil embolization. Additionally, we propose that stenting of the portal vein can lead to a significant improvement of the graft perfusion even though the hepatic artery remained occluded.
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3/6. Endoscopic therapy for main pancreatic-duct rupture after Silastic-ring vertical gastroplasty.

    BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis with pancreatic-duct rupture and fluid collections is a rare complication after Silastic ring vertical gastroplasty. It can be attributed to pancreatic trauma occurring during surgery. methods: Endoscopic therapy with transmural drainage of collections was performed in 4 patients who had undergone Silastic ring vertical gastroplasty and who had presented with acute pancreatitis with main pancreatic-duct rupture at the body of the pancreas. OBSERVATIONS: All patients had successful transmural drainage with cystogastrostomy, followed by stent insertion. Only one patient had a late recurrence because of stent migration. The major difficulty was related to positioning of the endoscope and the possible need of pneumatic dilation of the outlet channel to reach the puncture site. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic therapy is useful in acute pancreatitis with pancreatic-duct rupture after Silastic-ring vertical gastroplasty and, although technically difficult, could be considered as a first-line approach in the management of these patients.
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4/6. Preoperative embolization of hypervascular spinal metastases using percutaneous direct injection with n-butyl cyanoacrylate: technical case report.

    OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative blood loss constitutes a major cause of perioperative morbidity in surgical decompression and reconstruction of highly vascular spinal metastatic tumors. We propose a technique for embolization of highly vascular vertebral metastases using percutaneous direct injection using n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) instead of polymethylmethacrylate to complement preoperative transarterial embolization and to minimize operative blood loss. methods: Five patients with renal cell carcinoma metastases to the spine (one cervical, one thoracic, and three lumbar) underwent embolization by percutaneous direct injection of the affected vertebrae with a mixture of NBCA and iodized oil to supplement transarterial embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles and fibered platinum coils. This was achieved via a transpedicular approach in four cases and by direct vertebral body puncture in one case. RESULTS: The percutaneous NBCA direct injection procedure was technically successful in all cases and was not associated with neurological or medical complications. All patients underwent subsequent vertebrectomy and spinal instrumentation. Surgical resection was performed with lower than expected blood loss and with a subjective improvement in tumor tissue handling and dissection. CONCLUSION: The extent of tumor devascularization can be improved by supplementing transarterial embolization with NBCA direct injection to decrease operative blood loss and increase the safety of surgical resection and stabilization of highly vascular spinal metastases.
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5/6. A simple technique for anticipating and managing secondary puncture site hemorrhage during laparoscopic surgery. A report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Clinically significant hemorrhage from secondary port sites at laparoscopy is an uncommon but serious complication and can go unrecognized intraoperatively. CASES: A 28-year-old woman undergoing operative laparoscopy sustained abdominal wall vessel injury and required a blood transfusion. A second patient received the same injury but, when the author's technique was used, had minimal blood loss and a benign postoperative course. With this technique, a blunt instrument is placed through the sheath and into the peritoneal cavity before any secondary port is removed. The sheath is withdrawn, only the probe is kept in the abdomen, and then hemorrhage usually becomes evident. CONCLUSION: A new technique aids the diagnosis of occult abdominal vessel injury and allows rapid recanalization of the secondary trocar sheath paths.
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6/6. Management and prevention of cardiovascular hemorrhage associated with mediastinitis.

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the causes of cardiovascular hemorrhage associated with mediastinitis and to review recommendations for prevention and treatment. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Mediastinal debridement with immediate or early coverage using healthy, vascularized tissue has lead to greatly reduced morbidity and mortality for patients with mediastinitis. Myocardial hemorrhage has been anecdotally reported. patients AND methods: Over a 36-month period, 7 patients developed massive cardiovascular bleeding after undergoing debridement for poststernotomy mediastinitis. Causes included puncture or erosion by a sternal edge in three and tearing at the myocardial-sternal interface in four. RESULTS: Five patients survived and remain infection-free at an average of 24 months of follow-up. In these patients, ventricular defects were closed with pledgeted sutures and muscle transposition was used concomitantly to reinforce the repair. This involved a slide of the left pectoralis major muscle and turnover of the right pectoralis in three patients, bilateral sliding in one patient, and bilateral pectoralis and an omental flap in one patient who required additional coverage of the lower mediastinum. CONCLUSIONS: When a patient who has undergone mediastinal debridement shows evidence of significant bleeding, we recommend application of pressure for control of hemorrhage, expeditious return to an operating room with available cardiopulmonary bypass, and immediate muscle coverage with healthy, well-vascularized tissue. Finally, early sternectomy might largely prevent this life-threatening complication.
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