Cases reported "Poxviridae Infections"

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1/7. Limited infection upon human exposure to a recombinant raccoon pox vaccine vector.

    A laboratory accident resulted in human exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) developed as a vaccine vector for antigens of yersinia pestis for protection of wild rodents (and other animals) against plague. Within 9 days, the patient developed a small blister that healed within 4 weeks. Raccoon poxvirus was cultured from the lesion, and the patient developed antibody to plague antigen (F1) and RCN. This is the first documented case of human exposure to RCN.
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2/7. parapoxvirus infections acquired after exposure to wildlife.

    The histopathologic and electron microscopic findings in two patients with skin lesions that developed after exposure to deer and other wildlife were consistent with a parapoxviral infection. Human infections that were morphologically similar to parapoxvirus infection have been previously described concerning exposure to cervids (deer and related animals). Ours are the first reported cases in which viral particles were demonstrated by electron microscopy.
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3/7. Human poxvirus disease after smallpox eradication.

    A 5-year-old boy living in a small camp in the rural Ivory Coast had a disease resembling smallpox. This occurred 4 years after smallpox had been eradicated from the Ivory Coast and 1.5 years after the last case of smallpox was detected in West and Central africa. Clinical, serological, and epidemiological evidence indicated this disease was probably monkeypox, a poxvirus of the variola/vaccina subgroup. A serologic survey of poxvirus antibodies in the wild animal population detected neutralizing antibodies in rodents, larger mammals, primates, and birds. The laboratory and ecological characteristics of poxviruses require further elucidation, especially those which have been found in animals near human monkeypox cases.
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4/7. The syndrome of milker's nodules in burn injury: evidence for indirect viral transmission.

    Four patients with first- to second-degree burns developed multiple unusual nodular lesions confined to the burned areas 2 to 3 weeks after the accident. Electron microscopy disclosed viral particles within epidermal cells. These were identified as subgroup II poxvirus. Viral culture established the diagnosis of paravaccinia (milker's nodule) infection. Since none of the patients had had direct contact with infected animals, but had been in contact with contaminated objects, an indirect viral transmission, previously not reported for milker's nodules, appears the most likely mode of infection.
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5/7. Surgical treatment of farmyard pox. Orf, milker's nodules, bovine papular stomatitis pox.

    Superficial epidermal surgical removal of localized bullous lesions of viral origin is recommended. An example is presented in which the patient had what we have termed "farmyard pox." This is our generic label for the clinically indistinguishable parapox viral infections acquired from farm animals, which include orf, milker's nodules, and the pox of bovine papular stomatitis. The surgery is simple and rapid, and completely removes the lesions. This eliminates the possibility of enlargement and contagion, and also promotes rapid healing.
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6/7. Human monkeypox.

    Human monkeypox, occurring in the tropical rainforest of west and central africa, is regarded as the most important orthopoxvirus infection for epidemiological surveillance during the post-smallpox era. This disease, first recognized in Zaire in 1970 resembles smallpox clinically but differs epidemiologically. Clinical features, their evolution and sequelae of monkeypox could be compared with discrete ordinary or modified type of smallpox. A case-fatality rate of 14% has been observed but some cases can be exceedingly mild or atypical and may easily remain undetected and unreported. Pronounced lymphadenopathy has been the only clinical feature found commonly in monkeypox but not in smallpox. Fifty-seven cases of human monkeypox have occurred since 1970, in the tropical rainforests in six west and central African countries, the majority of them (45) being reported from Zaire. The disease appears to be more frequent in dry season. Children below ten years of age comprise 84% of the cases. smallpox vaccination protects against monkeypox. Clusters of cases have been observed in certain areas within countries and within affected households. Human-to-human spread has possibly occurred seven times. No cases of possible tertiary spread were observed. The secondary attack rate among susceptible close household contacts was 10%, among all susceptible contacts 5%. This is much lower than that occurring with smallpox, which is between 25-40%. The limited avidity of monkeypox virus for human beings indicates that monkeypox is probably a zoonosis, although the animal reservoir(s) have not yet been identified. The low transmissibility, resulting in low frequency of disease in man indicates that monkeypox is not a public health problem. Human monkeypox has been a relatively newly recognized disease. Studies are in progress to identify the natural cycle of monkeypox virus and to define better its clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Special surveillance is maintained in endemic areas with the aim to provide assurance that in spite of waning immunity of the human population following cessation of the smallpox vaccination, the disease does not constitute a potential danger to man.
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7/7. Farmyard pox: parapox virus infection in man.

    Inasmuch as orf, milker's nodules and bovine papular stomatitis pox are clinically identical in man and are induced by currently indistinguishable parapox viruses, we propose a new generic term 'farmyard pox' for these diseases. This affords the clinician a diagnosis based on a common set of clinical and electron microscopic findings rather than one based on an uncertain or even misleading history. A case in point is reported in which the history failed to reveal a specific animal source of the virus, but electron microscopy confirmed the presence of parapox infection.
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