Cases reported "Poxviridae Infections"

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1/5. Feline orthopoxvirus infection transmitted from cat to human.

    We report the case of a 56-year-old female patient who presented with an inflamed, ulcerated lesion on the left side of her neck after contact (scratch) with a cat living in the patient's house. Satellite lesions developed despite local treatment and parenteral clindamycin. Histopatholgic examination and the Tzanck test showed evidence of a viral infection. Subsequent transmission electron microscopy of scrap tissue and material from a fresh pustule exhibited multiple typical poxvirus particles, predominantly in remnants of scaled-off layers of degenerated keratinocytes, and virus particles in intermingled phagocytes, leading to the diagnosis of feline orthopoxvirus (cowpox virus) infection. These results were verified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Concern has been raised as to whether discontinuation of smallpox vaccine would cause an increase in orthopoxvirus infection, but this has not yet shown to be the case.
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2/5. Ocular cowpox: transmission from the domestic cat to man.

    A clinicopathological case of ocular cowpox is reported. Cowpox is no longer regarded as being enzootic in cattle. The most likely mode of transmission of cowpox to man appears to be from the domestic cat or wild rodents.
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3/5. parapoxvirus infections of reindeer and musk ox associated with unusual human infections.

    This report concerns five cases of human infection resulting in lesions morphologically similar to human orf. parapoxvirus infection in reindeer was the probable source of infection in four cases. The fifth case involved musk ox. Two of the cases involving reindeer are particularly interesting as transmission of infection occurred indirectly. Viral particles were not seen by electron microscopy of human tissues, due probably to the late stage of the illness at the time of examination. However, electron microscopy of negatively stained suspensions prepared from biopsy material collected from reindeer calves at the outbreak of the illness and of post-mortem material from the musk ox revealed characteristic parapoxvirus particles. In one patient the infection was accompanied by fever, lymphadenopathy and nausea, which cleared following a few days of treatment with doxycycline chloride. 4 cases were curetted after 4, 6, 12 and 20 weeks and healed withour scarring whereas the fifth patient was by request left alone. This resulted in localized dark pigmentation following completion of the healing process after 26 weeks.
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4/5. Cutaneous form of bovine papular stomatitis in man.

    A cutaneous form of bovine papular stomatitis (BPS) infection was diagnosed in eight persons at the School of veterinary medicine at Auburn University, Auburn, Ala. The initial outbreak occurred in five persons who were involved in the care of a bull that required manual placement of an oral feeding tube. Confirmation of diagnosis was based on clinical findings, cytopathological effects in tissue culture, and isolation of typical paravaccinia virus particles in tissue culture. Transmission studies were performed successfully in three normal calves using tissue culture prepared from human biopsy material. In man, the cutaneous form of BPS infection shows gross lesions similar to the cutaneous form of contagious ecthyma ("orf") or pseudocowpox ("milkers' nodules") infection. Because BPS in cattle occurs most often without evidence of readily observable lesions, unlike contagious ecthyma in sheep or pseudocowpox in cattle, the transmission of BPS to man in the cutaneous form could occur without apparent source. The mild clinical manifestations make the condition relatively minor; however, the occasional case may have more severe lesions.
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5/5. The syndrome of milker's nodules in burn injury: evidence for indirect viral transmission.

    Four patients with first- to second-degree burns developed multiple unusual nodular lesions confined to the burned areas 2 to 3 weeks after the accident. Electron microscopy disclosed viral particles within epidermal cells. These were identified as subgroup II poxvirus. Viral culture established the diagnosis of paravaccinia (milker's nodule) infection. Since none of the patients had had direct contact with infected animals, but had been in contact with contaminated objects, an indirect viral transmission, previously not reported for milker's nodules, appears the most likely mode of infection.
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