Cases reported "Poxviridae Infections"

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1/26. Tanapox: first report in a European traveller and identification by PCR.

    Tanapox is a rare pox disease endemic in East africa. We report the first case of tanapox in a European traveller who contracted the disease in 1999 during a short visit to tanzania. The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds and confirmed by electron microscopy and a tanapox virus-specific PCR assay. ( info)

2/26. Feline orthopoxvirus infection transmitted from cat to human.

    We report the case of a 56-year-old female patient who presented with an inflamed, ulcerated lesion on the left side of her neck after contact (scratch) with a cat living in the patient's house. Satellite lesions developed despite local treatment and parenteral clindamycin. Histopatholgic examination and the Tzanck test showed evidence of a viral infection. Subsequent transmission electron microscopy of scrap tissue and material from a fresh pustule exhibited multiple typical poxvirus particles, predominantly in remnants of scaled-off layers of degenerated keratinocytes, and virus particles in intermingled phagocytes, leading to the diagnosis of feline orthopoxvirus (cowpox virus) infection. These results were verified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Concern has been raised as to whether discontinuation of smallpox vaccine would cause an increase in orthopoxvirus infection, but this has not yet shown to be the case. ( info)

3/26. Milker's nodule in a healthy young woman.

    Milker's nodules (pseudocowpox) are harmless skin lesions most commonly seen in persons whose occupation regularly brings them into close contact with cattle. They are caused by the paravaccinia virus, a member of the poxvirus family. awareness of their clinical and histopathologic features is important, especially with today's heightened awareness of the threat of biologic warfare, to distinguish them from more worrisome entities such as tularemia and anthrax. ( info)

4/26. A case of severe monkeypox virus disease in an American child: emerging infections and changing professional values.

    monkeypox virus disease is a rare zoonosis that until recently was limited to Central africa. We describe the clinical features of the third child in the united states reported with this newly emerging infection. This child was part of a large cluster of individuals in the Midwest infected by prairie dogs that had contracted the virus when housed with infected small mammals imported from africa. The differential and laboratory diagnoses and the difficulty finding physicians and nurses to care for this patient are discussed. ( info)

5/26. Limited infection upon human exposure to a recombinant raccoon pox vaccine vector.

    A laboratory accident resulted in human exposure to a recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) developed as a vaccine vector for antigens of yersinia pestis for protection of wild rodents (and other animals) against plague. Within 9 days, the patient developed a small blister that healed within 4 weeks. Raccoon poxvirus was cultured from the lesion, and the patient developed antibody to plague antigen (F1) and RCN. This is the first documented case of human exposure to RCN. ( info)

6/26. Milkers' nodules complicated by erythema multiforme and graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.

    We describe a case of cow-transmitted parapoxvirus infection--also known as milkers' nodules--after a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. The infection was complicated by erythema multiforme and acute exacerbation of graft-versus-host disease. parapoxvirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. The natural history of milker's nodules in immunocompetent hosts is described and compared to that in our immunocompromised patient. ( info)

7/26. Human sealpox resulting from a seal bite: confirmation that sealpox virus is zoonotic.

    The case of a marine mammal technician who sustained a seal-bite to the hand that produced a lesion clinically very similar to orf is described. sequence analysis of the viral dna amplified from the lesion by the polymerase chain reaction indicated that it was sealpox virus in origin. This is the first report providing unequivocal evidence that sealpox may be transmitted to humans and causes lesions very similar to orf. ( info)

8/26. orthopoxvirus infection transmitted by a domestic cat.

    The variola virus was declared eradicated by the world health organization in 1980 but human infections by cowpox virus, another member of the genus orthopoxvirus, are still observed, mainly in European countries. We report a woman who presented with two umbilicated vesicles surrounded by an indurated erythematous edema within cat scratch injuries on her thigh. The diagnosis of an orthopoxvirus infection was based on the visualization of characteristic virus particles by electron microscopy and the detection of the A27L gene (14-kd fusion protein gene) of the genus orthopoxvirus by polymerase chain reaction from a lesional skin biopsy specimen. Differential diagnoses of cat scratch disease, pustula maligna, and bullous impetigo were excluded by microbiologic investigation of the biopsy specimen. Both lesions scarred after 6 weeks of a continuous local antiseptic treatment. ( info)

9/26. Animal poxviruses transmitted from cat to man: current event with lethal end.

    We report about the infection of an 18-year-old man with an orthopox virus (OPV) which was transmitted by a cat. The infectious route from cat to man could be proved by epidemiological, virological and serological methods. The corresponding techniques are described. The patient had not been vaccinated against smallpox and was intensively immunosuppressed by medication on account of a severe endogeneous eczema combined with an allergic asthma bronchiale. A cyclic poxvirus disease developed with a generalised, partly confluent pox virus exanthema disseminated over the body. The clinical symptoms were similar to a "variola pustulosa haemorrhagica". The young man died of a lung embolism in the course of the intensive medical therapy. The haemorrhagic character of the pox virus pustules with central necrosis (pox navel) could be reproduced in the rabbit skin and on chorioallantois membranes. The pox virus isolated from the patient could be differentiated from variola, vaccinia and monkeypox virus. It is a member of the group of "cowpox-like viruses". The environmental importance of these OPVs is discussed. ( info)

10/26. parapoxvirus infections acquired after exposure to wildlife.

    The histopathologic and electron microscopic findings in two patients with skin lesions that developed after exposure to deer and other wildlife were consistent with a parapoxviral infection. Human infections that were morphologically similar to parapoxvirus infection have been previously described concerning exposure to cervids (deer and related animals). Ours are the first reported cases in which viral particles were demonstrated by electron microscopy. ( info)
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