Cases reported "Prader-Willi Syndrome"

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1/293. prader-willi syndrome and psychotic symptoms: 1. Case descriptions and genetic studies.

    Six people with prader-willi syndrome (PWS) who developed psychoses are described. Along with other literature reviewed in the present paper, the results imply an association between PWS and psychotic symptoms. Genetic studies were possible in five cases and SNRPN expression was examined in three cases. Maternal uniparental disomy and 15q11q13 deletions were found, demonstrating that psychotic symptoms are not associated with a single type of genetic abnormality.
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2/293. prader-willi syndrome and cycloid psychoses.

    The psychiatric symptomatology of people with prader-willi syndrome (PWS) has mainly been described in case reports and some large-scale descriptive studies. Unfortunately, there is still no systematic description of all the psychiatric symptoms which accompany this chromosomal error. Symptoms of mood disorder and anxiety dominate the picture of PWS, although some reports also mention psychotic symptoms with variations in prevalence of between 15% and 60%. The present paper presents six case reports of adult male subjects with a diagnosis of PWS and psychiatric symptoms who fulfill the criteria for cycloid psychosis (ICD-10 F.23.0). This psychotic disorder requires a specific psychopharmacological approach with mood stabilizing agents, particularly lithium. It is concluded that subjects with PWS may be especially vulnerable to the development of cycloid psychosis, which suggests the existence of a specific 'psychopathological phenotype'.
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3/293. Syndromal obesity due to paternal duplication 6(q24.3-q27).

    The likelihood of a paternally expressing imprinted gene in chromosome region 6(q23-24) has been highlighted by cases of transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM) in which paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 6 or paternal duplication 6(q23-qter) was detected. We present the case of a 38-year-old man with moderate to severe intellectual delay, short stature, small hands and feet, eye abnormality, small mouth, and obesity (without hyperphagia) beginning in mid-childhood. The perinatal and neonatal histories were normal. The patient had a duplication within 6q. fluorescence in situ hybrisation studies were performed with single and dual hybridisations using a chromosome 6 library probe, short and long arm subregional probes, 6q23-24, 6q25.3-6qter locus-specific probes, and a 6q telomere probe. The hybridisation results defined an inverted duplication of 6q24.3 to 6q27. dna studies with microsatellite markers from 6p and 6q showed regular biparental inheritance of chromosome 6 and confirmed that the duplication was paternal in origin. Our patient appears to be the first one known to have paternal duplication of chromosome area 6(q24-q27) who did not have TNDM as an infant. He has remained nondiabetic, although obesity, without hyperphagia, has been a constant problem since its onset in mid-childhood.
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4/293. multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 concomitant with prader-willi syndrome: case report and genetic diagnosis.

    A case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (men 1) accompanied with prader-willi syndrome (PWS) was reported. diagnosis of both diseases have been genetically confirmed. Delay in the diagnosis and management for PWS made surgery for endocrine tumors difficult. This is the first report on the concomitance of men 1 with PWS.
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5/293. prader-willi syndrome associated with fetal goiter: a case report.

    We describe a unique case of a newborn with prader-willi syndrome who presented with fetal goiter as well as neonatal thyroid abnormalities, marked hypotonia, and thrombocytopenia. These new clinical observations may correlate with the uniparental monodisomy form of inheritance of this genetic condition.
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6/293. Genetic factors in human sleep disorders with special reference to Norrie disease, prader-willi syndrome and Moebius syndrome.

    Sleep-wake problems are common in specific inborn errors of metabolism and structure of the central nervous system. Psychological factors, behavioural difficulties, metabolic disturbances, and widespread rather than focal damage to the nervous system are present in many of these diseases and all influence the sleep-wake cycle. However, a number of conditions cause relatively focal damage to the neuroanatomical substrate of sleeping and waking. These include fatal familial insomnia, with involvement of the prion protein gene on chromosome 20, Norrie disease, the prader-willi syndrome and the Moebius syndrome. The last three important conditions, although rare, are considered in detail in this review. They result in sensory deprivation, hypothalamic and mid-brain damage, and involve the X-chromosome, chromosome 15, and chromosome 13, respectively. These conditions cause a wide variety of sleep disturbance, including parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and a condition like cataplexy. The place of the relevant gene products in normal sleep regulation needs further exploration.
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7/293. Duplication within chromosome region 15q11-q13 in a patient with similarities to prader-willi syndrome confirmed by region-specific and band-specific fish.

    We report on a patient presenting with mental retardation and obesity and a proximal duplication of chromosome 15. The patient shared some clinical signs with prader-willi syndrome. With a region-specific paint, generated by microdissection, a duplication in region 15q11.2-q13 was shown to be present. Subsequently, FISH with probes localized to chromosome region 15q11.2-q12 and microsatellite analysis was used to characterize this chromosome aberration further and an insertion duplication within the region frequently deleted in Prader-Willi and angelman syndrome was demonstrated.
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8/293. Maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 14 in a boy with a normal karyotype.

    We report on a boy with a maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 14 (UPD(14)). At 7 years of age he was referred to us by the paediatrician because of symptoms of prader-willi syndrome (PWS). He showed short stature, obesity, mild developmental delay, cryptorchidism, and some mild dysmorphic features. The history further indicated intrauterine growth retardation at the end of the pregnancy. His mother was 44 years of age at the time of his birth. After birth he showed hypotonia with poor sucking, for which gavage feeding was needed. Motor development was delayed. After 1 year he became obese despite a normal appetite. Recurrent middle ear infections, a high pain threshold, and a great skill with jigsaw puzzles were reported. There were no behavioural problems or sleep disturbance. Chromosomal analysis was normal (46,XY). dna analysis for prader-willi syndrome showed no abnormalities. Two years later he was re-examined because we thought his features fitted the PWS-like phenotype associated with maternal UPD(14). At that time precocious puberty was evident. dna analysis showed maternal heterodisomy for chromosome 14. In all the previously described 11 cases with maternal UPD(14), a Robertsonian translocation involving chromosome 14 was detected cytogenetically before dna analysis. This is the first report of diagnosis of maternal UPD(14) based on clinical features. This finding underlines the importance of dna analysis for maternal UPD(14) in patients with a similar PWS-like phenotype even without previous identification of a Robertsonian translocation involving chromosome 14.
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9/293. prader-willi syndrome in a child with XYY.

    We report a 26-month-old boy with XYY syndrome, with the complication of prader-willi syndrome (PWS) due to uniparental maternal disomy of chromosome 15. To our knowledge, this is the first case of XYY syndrome and PWS. Clinical findings were fully compatible with the diagnostic criteria for PWS. Molecular analysis revealed a maternal heterodisomy of chromosome 15, indicating that non-disjunction of chromosome 15 had occurred at maternal meiosis I, and that the non-disjunction of chromosome Y and of chromosome 15 had occurred independently.
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10/293. Investigation of a cryptic interstitial duplication involving the Prader-Willi/angelman syndrome critical region.

    A 3-year-old female referred with developmental delay, hypotonia and seizures was found to have a cryptic interstitial duplication of the Prader-Willi/Angelman critical region (PWACR). Her clinical features form part of a common phenotype characteristic of PWACR duplications including developmental delay, behavioural problems and speech difficulties. Microsatellite analysis showed that the duplication had arisen de novo, was maternal in origin and involved the entire 4-Mb PWACR between the common deletion breakpoints. The existence of cryptic rearrangements emphasises the need for molecular tests alongside conventional cytogenetics when investigating abnormalities involving this imprinted region.
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