Cases reported "Precancerous Conditions"

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1/48. Development of a high grade dysplastic nodule in a case of congenital hepatic fibrosis.

    A 43-year-old male with a history of congenital hepatic fibrosis associated with large liver cell dysplasia developed a sizable lesion in the right lobe of the liver, which was, after a follow-up of 4 years, surgically removed on account of a suspected malignant transformation. Pathological examination showed an unencapsulated nodule with both architectural and cytological dysplastic changes, arising in a background of congenital hepatic fibrosis harbouring extranodular foci of large liver cell dysplasia. This report concerns the development of a high grade dysplastic nodule, a sizable hepatocellular lesion with suspected preneoplastic significance, in a patient with congenital hepatic fibrosis associated with large liver cell dysplasia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = preneoplastic
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2/48. Case report: natural development of osteosarcoma from precancerous lesion.

    We encountered a very rare case that suggested the natural development of osteosarcoma from a precancerous lesion. The patient presented with a huge osteosarcoma in the distal femur on the initial consultation to our hospital. He had undergone X-ray examination twice previously, due to a knee injury. The findings of the lesion detected by the first X-ray examination were similar to a fibrous cortical defect (FCD), differing from those of an osteosarcoma lesion detected by second and last X-ray examinations. We retrospectively estimated the growth rate of the FCD-like and osteosarcoma lesions and found that FCD-like lesion was not osteosarcoma, but might have been a precancerous lesion. We also speculated that this osteosarcoma lesion might have appeared 18 months before the patient consulted our hospital.
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ranking = 5.4064631240192
keywords = precancerous
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3/48. Bilateral small radial forearm flaps for the reconstruction of buccal mucosa after surgical release of submucosal fibrosis: a new, reliable approach.

    oral submucous fibrosis is a collagen disorder affecting the submucosal layer and often severely limiting mouth opening. Previous surgical treatments have been disappointing. This article introduces a new surgical approach: reconstructing the bilateral buccal mucosa with two small radial forearm flaps. The surgical method includes the complete surgical release of fibrotic buccal mucosa and, if necessary, a bilateral coronoidectomy and temporalis muscle myotomy. From 1997 to 1999, 15 patients with moderate-to-severe trismus received reconstructive surgery, for a total of 30 small radial forearm flaps after surgical release. The flap size was between 1.5 x 5 and 2.5 x 7 cm. All donor sites were directly closed, and all flaps survived completely, except for one with partial necrosis. Six flaps required minor revisions because of size redundancy. Two patients developed buccal cancer in the area of reconstruction. At an average of 12 months' follow-up, the inter-incisal distance averaged 33 mm, an increase of 17 mm compared with the preoperative value. The donor-site morbidity was minimal, except in one heavy smoker who developed dry gangrene of his fingertips. The use of two small free forearm flaps for buccal mucosa reconstruction allows more radical release of fibrotic tissue. Coronoidectomy and temporal muscle myotomy further contribute to the effect of trismus release. The combined effects of this approach have consistently given good results. An aggressive approach toward surgical treatment of this precancerous lesion also facilitates the detection of cancer at an early stage.
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ranking = 0.90107718733654
keywords = precancerous
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4/48. Ocular melanocytosis and melanoma.

    The hypothesis that ocular melanocytosis is a precancerous condition that may lead to a choroidal melanoma should be seriously questioned for the following reasons: The incidence of malignant degeneration in a hyperpigmented eye is unknown and overreported. If the hypothesis were correct a bilateral melanoma would occasionally occur in patients with bilateral melanosis. No such case has been reported. In patients with unilateral melanosis the blue, unaffected eye may also develop a melanoma. A 67-year-old white woman with one dark and one blue eye provided the first such instance, although previous cases may not have been reported if their histologic picture was not unusual. The incidence of melanoma in our patients with unilateral melanosis was rare compared with the many melanomas developing in normal pigmented eyes (4/418). I found no statistically significant difference in the incidence of choroidal melanomas originating in the hyperpigmented or in the blue eye in patients with unilateral ocular melanocytosis.
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ranking = 1.1778714314087
keywords = precancerous, precancerous condition
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5/48. laser therapy of human benign and malignant neoplasms of the skin.

    radiation of a powerful neodymium-doped glass pulsed laser, Pulsar-1000 type, has been used for therapy of 235 patients with a total of 257 precancerous lesions and benign tumours, 76 basal and squamous cell carcinomas, 13 melanoblastomas and 59 metastatic melanoblastomas in the skin. Energy density used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumours was 200-450 J/cm2, in basal and squamous cell carcinomas 400-500 J/cm2, in melanoblastomas and their skin metastases 800-1 000 J/cm2. The results have been satisfactory.
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ranking = 1.8021543746731
keywords = precancerous
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6/48. Genetic analysis of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: precancerous lesion of gallbladder cancer?

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gallbladder, a variant of the chronic cholecystitis. As xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is occasionally seen with carcinoma of the gallbladder, the association with cancer is a controversial issue. A focal type of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is found simultaneously with gastric cancer diagnosed preoperatively. The resected specimen was genetically studied. polymerase chain reaction amplification, single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis for mutation of p53 showed no abnormality indicating that less association with cancer in which the mutation of p53 is often seen. Etiopathologic factors of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis might have relation with cancer, but xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis itself may not be the direct cause for cancer.
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ranking = 3.6043087493462
keywords = precancerous
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7/48. Molecular changes track recurrence and progression of bronchial precancerous lesions.

    diagnosis of lung cancer is reached when the disease had grown to advanced stages in its natural history. Thus, novel molecular markers for early detection and risk assessment are needed. Here we performed a longitudinal study of 20 morphological lesions occurred in the bronchial tree of high-risk patients. The lesions were subjected to life (laser-induced fluorescence endoscopy) bronchoscopy and molecular follow-up over a 4 year period. The presence and the persistence of specific genetic alterations were correlated with recurrence or progression of the disease on follow-up. Molecular lesions considered as highly predictive of invasion could be prospectively used as diagnostic markers of high risk for lung cancer in exposed patients.
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ranking = 3.6043087493462
keywords = precancerous
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8/48. natural history of the familial medullary thyroid carcinoma-pheochromocytoma syndrome and the identification of preneoplastic stages by screening studies: a five-year report.

    1. In the fifth year of followup, 8 of 12 original patients thyroidectomized for MTC, diagnosed solely by abnormal calcitonin values, are disease free by all criteria. Elevated calcitonin levels are the only manifestation of active disease in three patients with presumed metastases. 2. Routine annual screening of susceptible individuals is a practical measure and has in 6 cases detected the premalignant condition of G-cell hyperplasia and in 1 patient a premetastatic state of MTC. It is premature to conclude that yearly screening is sufficient to detect all cases of premetastatic disease and for this reason we are recommending a yearly screen with pentagastrin and calcium tests and the more convenient pentagastrin test at 6 month intervals for those in the high-risk age group between 8 and 18. If screening at such intervals proves to be ineffective in preventing the disease in every case, consideration must be given to prophylactic thyroidectomy although we are not currently recommending this precedure. 3. pentagastrin injection is often a more effective secretagogue for calcitonin than is calcium infusion, but this is not uniformly true. We therefore recommend use of both tests as the most appropriate screening procedure. 4. epinephrine is a major secretory product of pheochromocytomas in the J-kindred and sequential E/N ratios may be of use in the early detection of pheochromocytoma in other kindreds. 5. Adrenal medullary hyperplasia has been found in 3 adrenal glands and is probably a preneoplastic condition analogous to C-cell hyperplasia.
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ranking = 5
keywords = preneoplastic
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9/48. Primary adenovillous carcinoma of the bladder.

    Two cases of primary adenovillous carcinoma of the bladder are presented: one in a normally placed bladder and the other in an exstrophied bladder. The close association of these 2 neoplasms with coexistent cystitis glandularis would seem to support the possible precancerous nature of the latter entity. The remarkable similarity of these neoplasms to villous adenocarcinomas of the rectum is also described, a finding which may reflect the close embryologic origin of the rectum and bladder neck. A brief review of the classification of vesical adenocarcinomas is also given.
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ranking = 0.90107718733654
keywords = precancerous
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10/48. Genetic evaluation of the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in chronic viral liver disease: a detailed analysis of two cases and a review of the literature.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent human malignancies, especially in Asia and africa, but also in the western world its incidence is increasing. HCC is a complication of chronic liver disease with cirrhosis as the most important risk factor. Viral co-pathogenesis due to hepatitis b virus (HBV) and hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection seems to be an important factor in the development of HCC. Curative therapy is often not possible due to the late detection of HCC. Thus, it is attractive to find parameters which predict malignant transformation in HBV- and HCV-infected livers. In the past decade, preneoplastic lesions, i.e. dysplastic foci or nodules, have gained interest as possible markers for imminent malignancy. Noteworthy, dysplastic liver lesions are increasingly detected by imaging techniques. We describe here two cases of chronic viral liver disease, one HBV-and one HCV-related, in which dysplastic lesions were present adjacent to HCC. In the HBV case, a (smaller) satellite of HCC was present as well. The neoplastic specimens were investigated by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and in situ hybridization (ISH). Both methods revealed multiple genetic alterations in the HCCs. The genetic patterns of the HBV-related HCC and the satellite tumor showed many shared alterations suggesting a clonal relationship. A subset of genetic changes were already present in dysplasias illustrating their preneoplastic nature. Surrounding liver cirrhosis samples did not display chromosomal aberrations. A literature survey illustrates the relative paucity of information concerning genetic alterations in preneoplastic liver lesions. However, all the data strongly suggests a role for liver cell dysplasia as a precursor condition of liver cell cancer.
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ranking = 3
keywords = preneoplastic
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