Cases reported "Precancerous Conditions"

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1/441. MR imaging of complex tail-gut cysts.

    Retrorectal-cyst hamartomas (RCH) are rare developmental tail-gut cystic tumours of the retrorectal space, which occasionally undergo malignant transformation. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in two patients with RCH and in a third patient with unclassified sarcoma arising from a RCH. The RCH were hypointense or hyperintense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images; they did not enhance and they contained multiple septations. A solid component in the periphery of one cyst was markedly hypointense on T2-weighted images in keeping with fibrous material. The sarcoma arising from the wall of the RCH enhanced and was of intermediate signal intensity on all sequences. MR may help establish the diagnosis of RCH if an unenhanced cystic tumour is discovered in the retrorectal space and it can help detect those rare cases of malignant transformation of these developmental tumours. ( info)

2/441. Premalignant lesions and hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-cirrhotic alcoholic patient with iron overload and normal transferrin saturation.

    A 66-year-old white man had a hepatic resection for a 6-cm well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma which had developed in a non-cirrhotic liver. The only risk factors found were heavy drinking, smoking and heterozygosity for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene. The liver was mildly fibrotic and overloaded with iron. It also contained numerous iron-free hepatocellular lesions from <1 to 10 mm, suggesting a premalignant change. These lesions were of three types: (i) iron-free foci, (ii) hyperplastic nodules and (iii) dysplastic nodules with severe dysplasia or even foci of well-differentiated grade I hepatocellular carcinoma. This observation suggests the possibility of malignant transformation of the liver in the newly-described syndrome of iron overload and normal transferrin saturation. It also illustrates the multistep process of carcinogenesis in the non-cirrhotic liver. ( info)

3/441. Invasive cervical cancer after laser vaporization for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a 10-year experience.

    The treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by laser vaporization has been in progress at the Birmingham and Midland Hospital for women since September 1977. In this interval, 3182 patients have been treated. Seven women have developed invasive cancer at intervals 4-34 months postlaser. The lesions diagnosed were stage Ia (3), Ib (1), IIb (1), IIIa (1), and IV (1). These case histories are presented. On retrospective assessment, there were contraindications to local destructive treatment in six of seven cases. This series emphasizes the need for thorough evaluation of patients before embarking on local destructive treatments and emphasizes the need for careful follow-up of treated patients. ( info)

4/441. Cell-mediated immunity in epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    Investigations were performed in 6 cases of epidermodysplasia verruciformis and 2 healthy family members. Nonspecific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was studied by measuring response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin a (Con A), percentrages of E- and EAC-rosette-forming lymphocytes, bacterial skin tests, and allergic reactions to dinitrochloro-benzene (DNCB). Impairment of CMI was manifested by reduction in the percentage of E rosettes, and lowered response to PHA, and- to a lesser degree- to Con A. The immune response to DNCB sensitization was invariably negative. Impairment of CMI was greater in cases of long duration and with extensive lesions. The cases of similar duration and extent of lesions, which never showed tendency to tumor formation, were not different in CMI in comparison with cases with numerous tumors. Only in cases with very advanced tumors CMI was impaired parallel to the gravity of the patient's general condition. ( info)

5/441. Simultaneous MALT-type lymphoma and early adenocarcinoma of the stomach associated with helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    We report about two cases of combined gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma with one of them representing a case of early gastric high grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) with co-existing early gastric adenocarcinoma. In contrast to most previously reported similar cases, in both of our cases the definitive diagnosis of gastric lymphoma and carcinoma was obtained preoperatively. This, however, seems to be in future times an essential prerequisite for employing minimal invasive methods such as eradication therapy in the case of diagnosed early lymphoma and endoscopic treatment for early gastric carcinomas. These methods have been proven to be an effective and beneficial alternative treatment especially with regard to the life quality of the patients. ( info)

6/441. Anaplastic nodules in an ovarian mucinous tumor. Case report and literature review.

    The case of a 38-year-old woman with an ovarian mucinous cyst that contained solid nodules of anaplastic carcinoma is described. Hitherto, only 17 cases of this aggressive type of ovarian tumor have been reported. The patient underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and a para-aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy. The tumor was classified as FIGO Stage Ic. On flow cytometry the tumor was dna diploid. Also, on image analysis the regions with well- differentiated carcinoma and the regions with anaplastic nodules were dna diploid. No adjuvant treatment was given. There is no evidence of disease 30 months after diagnosis. ( info)

7/441. Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis arising on lichen sclerosus et atrophicus.

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis arising on lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is rarely reported. A case is described in a 63-year-old man who had been diagnosed of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus 3 years before. The previously reported cases, the association of these diseases in women and men, and the possible pathogenesis are discussed. ( info)

8/441. Ulcerative colitis complicated by dysplasia-adenoma-carcinoma in a man with Bloom's syndrome.

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is a rare genetic disorder in which the major clinical feature is growth deficiency. The genome in BS somatic cells is unstable, and hypermutability explains many clinical features. Most notably, affected persons are at enormously increased risk of developing many types of cancers at different sites. It has been well known that ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with the spectrum of epithelial changes signifying dysplasia and the progression to frank carcinoma. We report here a case of UC complicated by dysplasia-adenoma-carcinoma sequence in a 37-year-old man with BS. ( info)

9/441. Rapid progression to high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus after liver transplantation.

    There is an increased incidence of malignancies in transplant recipients. Accelerated progression from a premalignant lesion to carcinoma has been reported in transplant recipients with skin cancer and colon cancer. Whereas Barrett's esophagus is a common premalignant condition in the normal population, rapid progression to severe dysplasia or carcinoma has not been widely reported in transplant recipients. We report on a liver transplant recipient who developed rapid progression from Barrett's esophagus without dysplasia to high-grade dysplasia within 9 months after transplantation. ( info)

10/441. Clonal analysis of a case of multifocal oesophageal (Barrett's) adenocarcinoma by comparative genomic hybridization.

    Oesophageal adenocarcinomas arising in Barrett's epithelium occasionally present as multiple lesions. This could be due to either a multifocal presentation of the same tumour, or different neoplasms arising simultaneously in a dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus ('field cancerization'). This is a report of the genetic analysis of multiple neoplastic sites in a Barrett's oesophagus with an extensive area of dysplasia. In addition, the dysplastic Barrett's epithelium was evaluated. For the genetic screening, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) allowed evaluation of the whole genome of each specimen. Five cancerous regions were selected and subsequently dissected from paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. The use of archival materials enabled a targeted collection of representative tumour locations. Multiple genetic aberrations were detected by CGH in all cancer sites. Losses on 3p, 4, 7q, 18q, and Y, as well as gains on 8q, 9q, 12p, 13q, 17q, 20p and X, were found in each specimen. In four out of the five lesions, simultaneous losses on 9p, 15q, and 16q, with concomitant gains on 5p, 7q, and 10p, were disclosed by CGH. Adjacent high-grade dysplastic Barrett's mucosa shared the losses on 3p, 4, 7q, 9p, 18, and Y, as well as the gains on 5p, 7q, 13q, 17q, and X, thereby confirming its precursor status. Within this single and rare case of multifocal Barrett's adenocarcinoma, a monoclonal genotype was present. This must have been caused by an extensive outgrowth of a single tumour. ( info)
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