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1/20. Metastasis from small cell carcinoma of the lung producing acute appendicitis.

    A case of acute gangrenous appendicitis with perforation caused by metastatic small cell carcinoma of the lung in a 65 year old man is reported. The manifestation of appendicitis occurred more than 4 years after the diagnosis of the bronchogenic carcinoma. With longer survival of patients with disseminated tumors it is probable that new manifestations of those malignancies will be discovered. Acute appendicitis due to metastasis from a distant neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right lower abdominal pain in the oncology patient.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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2/20. adult Wilms' tumor presenting as acute abdomen with elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase-4 and -5 isoenzymes: case report.

    Wilms' tumor, an embryonic neoplasm, is the most frequent renal tumor in childhood but is rare in adults. The prognosis of adult Wilms' tumor is worse than pediatric Wilms' tumor. The preoperative diagnosis of adult Wilms' tumor is extremely difficult to make because diagnostic imaging techniques, such as intravenous pyelography, computed tomography, ultrasound, renal angiography, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, only confirm the presence of a renal mass. diagnosis usually depends on histological characteristics, such as the presence of blastemic, epithelial, and mesenchymal components. A 27-year-old female presented with acute abdomen and with elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at 212 U/l (normal range: 47-140), and 2 of 5 LDH isoenzymes, namely LDH-4 at 13.6% (normal range: 6.8%-10.2%) and LDH-5 at 20% (normal range: 6.5%-9.7%). In this patient, stage I Wilms' tumor was managed by radical nephrectomy. The levels of LDH returned to its normal range. In conclusion, in cases of acute abdomen with a renal mass in young adults, the possibility of Wilms' tumor should be considered. serum LDH and its isoenzymes, LDH-4 and LDH-5, could be used as tumor markers for either differential diagnosis or monitoring the response of treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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3/20. Acute abdomen during adjuvant chemotherapy: superior mesenteric artery thrombosis associated with CMF chemotherapy.

    We report a case of superior mesenteric artery thrombosis in a 57-year-old woman undergoing chemotherapy for T1N1M0, breast cancer. Although cancer itself is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events, treatment with chemotherapy and/or tamoxifen in breast cancer patients increases this risk. Most cases reported are of venous thromboembolism; arterial events are rare.
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ranking = 1.5173817832632
keywords = cancer
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4/20. pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    pseudomyxoma peritonei is a relatively rare and poorly understood condition in which mucus accumulates within the peritoneal cavity. The presence of cells in the mucin, either inflammatory or neoplastic, distinguishes it from simple acellular mucus ascites caused by mucinous spillage. There is widespread seeding of the peritoneal and omental surfaces with a heavy cancerous glaze. This is principally a complication of borderline or malignant neoplasm of the ovary and/or appendix. This paper describes two cases of previously healthy women who both presented with an acute abdomen, and were diagnosed postoperatively with pseudomyxoma peritonei. In addition, literature on the clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, and treatment options has been briefly reviewed.
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ranking = 1.5057939277544
keywords = neoplasm, cancer
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5/20. Adnexal torsion presenting as an acute abdomen in a patient with bilateral cystic teratoma of the ovary.

    Benign cystic teratomas are the most common ovarian neoplasms in women. Teratomas are usually benign, unilateral, and most often found in young and premenopausal women. Most are 5 cm to 10 cm in diameter when diagnosed, and on sectioning, they usually contain thick sebaceous material, tangled hair, and various dermal structures. One of the major complications seen in cystic teratoma is torsion, a partial or complete twisting of the ovarian suspensary pedicle causing severe pain, nausea, and tissue necrosis. The patient described had bilateral cystic teratomas, one uncommonly large and torsed, causing an acute abdomen. Discussion includes the diagnosis, operative management, and postoperative findings.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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6/20. Small intestinal angiosarcoma leading to perforation and acute abdomen: a case report and review of the literature.

    A 76-year-old man presented to the emergency room with abdominal pain and fatigue. The patient had a history of gastrointestinal bleeding. An abdominal computed tomographic scan showed collections of free air in the abdomen with obstruction of the distal small intestine and multiple masses in the liver. laparotomy revealed a widespread malignant neoplasm in the abdomen, with multiple tumor nodules in the ileal wall, mesentery, and liver. The ileal wall was perforated within the area of one of the tumors. Pathologic examination of the lesion showed a neoplasm composed of solid sheets of spindle and undifferentiated cells, forming interlacing delicate vascular channels with atypical endothelial cells. The tumor cells were positive for the endothelial marker CD31, whereas reactivity for a broad panel of epithelial and other endothelial markers was negative. This case demonstrates that although angiosarcomas of the gastrointestinal tract are rare, they should be considered in cases of intestinal perforation or severe bleeding, especially in the elderly. A broad panel of immunochemical markers might be necessary to establish the pathologic diagnosis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = neoplasm
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7/20. Unusual causes of acute abdomen in a Nigerian hospital.

    Acute abdomen is the most common abdominal emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality in General surgical practice. Over a 7-year period, a study of unusual causes of acute abdomen was undertaken, with the aim of identifying these causes and outcome of operative management. Eleven cases were identified accounting for 4% of cases of acute abdomen seen during the period of the study. Four cases of liver diseases (33.3%) comprising 2 patients (16.7%) with ruptured primary liver cell carcinoma, 1 (one) case each of haemoperitoneum due to ruptured liver haemangioma and haemorrhagic disorders from liver cirrhosis. One patient had acute leukaemia with massive haemoperitoneum and acute abdomen. Five (45.5%) had gastrointestinal perforations; 1 patient (9%) each had multiple jejunal perforations, perforation of stomal ulcer at gastrojejunostomy site, perforation of gastric cancer; perforated carcinoid tumour of sigmoid colon and idiopathic perforation of the caecum. There was also a case of caecal volvulus. mortality was 7 patients (63.6%). All patients with liver pathology and acute leukaemia died. The cases of malignant tumour perforation were well and alive 4-6 years after the operation. CONCLUSION: Operation could have been avoided in 45.5% of these cases if the appropriate investigations, had been available and carried out.
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ranking = 0.50579392775441
keywords = cancer
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8/20. Internal hemorrhage caused by a twisted malignant ovarian dysgerminoma: ultrasonographic findings of a rare case and review of the literature.

    PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer presents as an acute abdomen very rarely. The purpose of the study is the description of a right ovarian malignant dysgerminoma presenting as an abdominal emergency. CASE: A 16-year-old white female presented with acute abdominal pain in the right iliac fossa. On physical examination the abdomen was acute and a mass in the right lower abdomen was palpated. The patient was sexually active and bimanual gynecological examination revealed the presence of a large lobulated solid tumor in the position of the right adnexa. Ultrasound examination showed the presence of a large, multilobulated, heterogeneous, predominantly solid pelvic mass. color flow imaging showed intratumoral flow signals. The uterus and the left ovary had normal size and echo-texture. Fluid was found in the cul-de-sac and in Morisson's space. An immediate exploratory laparotomy exposed the presence of a twisted right ovarian mass and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A superficial tumoral vessel actively bleeding was seen. Peritoneal fluid was obtained for cytology. The intra-abdominal hemorrhage ceased when the ovarian pedicle was clamped. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy and biopsy of the omentum. Pathologic analysis revealed a malignant dysgerminoma of the right ovary, expanding to the mesosalpinx. Cytology was positive for malignancy. Postoperative CT scan of the upper and lower abdomen was negative. The patient was assigned to FIGO Stage IIC and referred for platinum-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Ovarian malignant dysgerminoma may present as an acute abdomen because of torsion, passive blood congestion, rupture of superficial tumoral vessels and subsequent intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Ovarian dysgerminoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in a young woman with acute surgical abdomen and a solid heterogeneous pelvic mass detected by ultrasonographic scan.
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ranking = 0.50579392775441
keywords = cancer
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9/20. Haemangiopericytoma of greater omentum. A rare cause of acute abdominal pain.

    Haemangiopericytoma (HPT) is a rare neoplasm that can occur in any part of the human body. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with sudden severe upper abdominal pain caused by primary HPT in the greater omentum.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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10/20. A case of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx manifesting as acute abdomen.

    INTRODUCTION: Squamous cell head and neck cancers are usually confined to local and regional sites but occasionally, patients may present with rare manifestations of distant metastases. CLINICAL PICTURE: A 23-year-old female was treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for stage IVA post-cricoid squamous cell carcinoma. A month later, she presented with acute abdomen and was found to have extensive peritoneal nodules at laparotomy. intestinal obstruction soon followed. TREATMENT: She was managed conservatively for the intestinal obstruction and given weekly paclitaxel. OUTCOME: She continued to deteriorate and succumbed shortly after the diagnosis of carcinomatosis peritoneii. CONCLUSION: This rare and aggressive presentation reminds us to be cognizant of relapsed head and neck cancers manifesting atypically, and the need for more aggressive search of distant disease in at least some subgroups of head and neck cancer.
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ranking = 1.5173817832632
keywords = cancer
(Clic here for more details about this article)
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