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1/129. Anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with an intracranial arteriovenous malformation.

    Intracranial haemorrhage from an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) during pregnancy is rare but may result in significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In the untreated patient with an AVM, the best mode of delivery remains debatable with most obstetricians preferring a caesarean section in order to avoid Valsalva manoeuvres associated with vaginal delivery. We describe the administration of epidural anaesthesia for such a parturient undergoing Caesarean section and the anaesthetic implications.
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keywords = mortality
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2/129. The use of pulsatile perfusion during aortic valve replacement in pregnancy.

    Cardiac operations are occasionally required during pregnancy. Despite a low maternal mortality, fetal mortality remains high. Previous reports have suggested maintenance of high perfusion pressure and flow rate as protective measures to maintain fetal viability. Recent experimental data suggest pulsatile perfusion may help preserve placental hemodynamic function. The successful use of pulsatile bypass to replace the aortic valve in a 25-year-old female at 14 weeks gestation, with both maternal and fetal survival, is presented.
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ranking = 2
keywords = mortality
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3/129. heart transplantation for peripartum cardiomyopathy: a report of three cases and a literature review.

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a devastating medical condition and carries a mortality of up to 60% with medical treatment. The authors describe their experience of successful outcome of three cases with heart transplantation and review the literature. The importance of performance of endomyocardial biopsy for all peripartum cardiomyopathy patients is emphasized. It is recommended that heart transplantation should only be offered to myocarditis negative patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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4/129. ED echocardiography for peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    Although peripartum cardiomyopathy is uncommon, emergency physicians should be knowledgeable of it because of its high morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians should be alert to the fact that the clinical presentation of peripartum cardiomyopathy is nonspecific. Its clinical manifestations are found in other medical conditions that can present in the late prepartum or postpartum patient. We present a case of peripartum cardiomyopathy that illustrates how its nonspecific respiratory signs and symptoms led to an initial diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. The case also highlights the need for echocardiography in the evaluation of peripartum cardiomyopathy. We discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of peripartum cardiomyopathy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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5/129. Malignant primary hypertension in pregnancy treated with lisinopril.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a patient treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with a good neonatal outcome. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old African-Caribbean patient who had chronic hypertension presented at 18 weeks' gestation with acute hypertension. She was being treated for chronic hypertension with lisinopril, but had self-discontinued treatment. Attempts to control her hypertension with labetolol, nifedipine, and methyldopa were ineffective. She was therefore offered termination of pregnancy so treatment with lisinopril could be restarted. The patient elected to continue with the pregnancy in spite of the fetal risks associated with the use of an ACE inhibitor. She was delivered of a girl at 26 weeks' gestation. The baby initially had renal failure and also developed acute necrotizing enterocolitis. The renal failure improved simultaneously with the latter complication, and it is postulated that there was enteric excretion of lisinopril. The baby was discharged home on day 102 with no further complications. DISCUSSION: ACE inhibitors are acceptable medications to use in the first trimester of pregnancy; however, fetal malformations and neonatal complications have been associated with their use later in pregnancy, and they have a perinatal mortality rate of 97/1000. lisinopril is excreted in urine and feces unchanged, and its half-life is prolonged in anuric neonates. peritoneal dialysis eliminates lisinopril; however, this neonate improved after treatment for necrotizing enterocolitis and simultaneous improvement in bowel function. CONCLUSIONS: ACE inhibitors should not be used in pregnancy beyond the end of the first trimester. In exceptional cases, they may be indicated for the control of severe hypertension when the patient is refractory to other medications. The patient should be fully counseled about the adverse effect profile and neonatal outcome. This case report documents a successful outcome for mother and baby in these circumstances.
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ranking = 97.633341345302
keywords = perinatal mortality, mortality
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6/129. Twin pregnancy in a woman on long-term epoprostenol therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy associated with primary pulmonary hypertension is an uncommon observation, with maternal mortality > 50%. Experience treating this condition is limited. Past reports have emphasized the need for pregnancy termination. In the last few years there has been considerable interest in long-term intravenous use of epoprostenol (prostacyclin) in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. CASE: A woman with severe primary pulmonary hypertension who was on long-term epoprostenol therapy became pregnant with twins and was treated with high doses of epoprostenol and nitric oxide during delivery and the postpartum period. She was well six months later on continuous epoprostenol therapy. The one viable infant was alive and still hospitalized at this writing. CONCLUSION: epoprostenol therapy may be continued during pregnancy in patients with severe primary pulmonary hypertension for long-term pulmonary vasodilatation.
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keywords = mortality
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7/129. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction in pregnancy with coronary artery balloon angioplasty and stenting.

    Acute myocardial infarction in pregnancy is a rare condition with substantial risk of maternal and fetal mortality. We present a case of myocardial infarction during pregnancy which was treated by percutaneous coronary artery balloon angioplasty and stenting with excellent pregnancy outcome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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8/129. Cardiac operations during pregnancy: review of factors influencing fetal outcome.

    Women with underlying rheumatic heart disease, even if well compensated, can easily be affected by acute heart failure caused by out-of-the-ordinary cardiorespiratory requirements during pregnancy. In such cases, medical therapy is not always sufficient to drive a heart, and open heart operation might be necessary. Many factors associated with cardiac operations requiring cardiopulmonary bypass, such as hypothermia, can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus, but the morbidity and mortality rates are higher for the fetus than the mother. Because fetal heart tones were lost during cardiopulmonary bypass and were reheard in the intensive care unit in our case presentation, we have presumed that the loss of fetal heart tones should not always indicate fetal death and have discussed harmful factors in relation with the fetal morbidity and mortality in light of the literature.
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ranking = 2
keywords = mortality
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9/129. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: an ominous complication of pregnancy.

    PPCM is a relatively rare and lethal disease, poorly characterized and about which little is known. A diagnosis is made within a confined narrow period, the ninth month of pregnancy to the fifth month postpartum. The signs and symptoms of heart failure are classic, and failure is confirmed by an echocardiogram primarily showing either hypertrophy or dilatation and a low ejection fraction. Other causes of heart failure should be ruled out before the diagnosis of PPCM is made. Treatment is supportive and similar to standard therapy for heart failure. Probabilities of atrial or ventricular emboli are similar to the other dilated cardiomyopathies in heart failure and are treated accordingly, i.e., with coumadin or enoxaparin. Since mortality rates are high and can be between 18% and 56%, heart transplantation has been performed and prognosis improved. Finally, immunosuppressant therapy has been used successfully in only a small number of patients who were unimproved after 2 weeks of standard therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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10/129. Placenta percreta with bladder invasion as a cause of life threatening hemorrhage.

    PURPOSE: Abnormal placental penetration through the myometrium with bladder invasion is a rare obstetric complication with potential for massive blood loss. Urologists are usually consulted after a life threatening emergency has already arisen. Their familiarity with this condition is crucial for effective management. We describe 2 cases of placenta percreta with bladder invasion to highlight the catastrophic nature of this clinical entity, and review the literature on current diagnostic and management strategies. MATERIALS AND methods: Between 1986 and 1998, 250 cases of adherent placenta (0.9%) were identified in 25,254 births at our institution, including 2 (0.008%) of placenta percreta with bladder invasion. We treated these 2 multiparous women who were 33 and 30 years old, respectively. Each had undergone 2 previous cesarean sections. RESULTS: Presenting symptoms were severe hematuria in 1 patient and prepartum hemorrhage with shock in the other. Ultrasound showed complete placenta previa in each with evidence of bladder invasion in 1 patient. hysterectomy, bladder wall resection and repair, and bilateral internal iliac artery ligation were required to control massive intraoperative hemorrhage. The patients received 22 and 15 units of packed red blood cells, respectively. fetal death occurred in each case. convalescence was complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation in patient 1 but subsequent recovery was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion for placenta percreta with bladder invasion is required when evaluating pregnant women with a history of cesarean delivery and placenta previa who present with hematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms. ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging may assist in establishing the diagnosis preoperatively. With proper planning and a multidisciplinary approach fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality may be decreased.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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