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1/7. leptotrichia amnionii sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the amniotic fluid of a woman after intrauterine fetal demise.

    A novel bacterium was isolated and characterized from the amniotic fluid of a woman who experienced intrauterine fetal demise in the second trimester of pregnancy. The bacterium was a slow-growing, gram-negative anaerobic coccobacillus belonging to the genus leptotrichia: Unlike leptotrichia sanguinegens, the isolate did not grow in chopped-meat glucose broth or on sheep blood agar upon subculturing. The isolate was characterized by sequencing and analyzing its 16S rRNA gene. The 1,493-bp 16S ribosomal dna sequence had only 96% homology with L. sanguinegens. Several phylogenetic analyses indicated that L. amnionii is a distinct species and most closely related to L. sanguiegens.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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2/7. Two intriguing bilophila wadsworthia cases from hungary.

    bilophila wadsworthia, an obligately anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus, was first isolated from appendicitis specimens and human faeces. The two cases described here are the first report of the isolation of B. wadsworthia in hungary, and include the first isolation from chronic mastoiditis complicated with a brain abscess.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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3/7. Severe clostridium difficile-associated disease in populations previously at low risk--four states, 2005.

    clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, gram-positive bacillus that produces exotoxins that are pathogenic to humans. C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) ranges in severity from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis and death. Antimicrobial use is the primary risk factor for development of CDAD because it disrupts normal bowel flora and promotes C. difficile overgrowth. C. difficile typically has affected older or severely ill patients who are hospital inpatients or residents of long-term-care facilities. Recently, however, both the frequency and severity of health-care-associated CDAD has increased; from 2000 to 2001, the rate of U.S. hospital discharge diagnoses of CDAD increased by 26%. One possible explanation for these increases is the emergence of a previously uncommon strain of C. difficile responsible for severe hospital outbreaks. Although individual cases of CDAD are not nationally reportable, in 2005, the pennsylvania Department of Health (PADOH) and CDC received several case reports of serious CDAD in otherwise healthy patients with minimal or no exposure to a health-care setting. An investigation was initiated by the philadelphia Department of public health (PDPH), PADOH, and CDC to determine the scope of the problem and explore a possible change in CDAD epidemiology. This report summarizes the results of the investigation in pennsylvania and three other states, which indicated the presence of severe CDAD in healthy persons living in the community and peripartum women, two populations previously thought to be at low risk. The findings underscore the importance of judicious antimicrobial use, the need for community clinicians to maintain a higher index of suspicion for CDAD, and the need for surveillance to better understand the changing epidemiology of CDAD.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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4/7. Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent pregnant woman.

    BACKGROUND: Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. CONCLUSION: This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.
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ranking = 0.37346097356408
keywords = mycobacterium
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5/7. Lactobacillemia in pregnancy.

    A pregnant woman allergic to penicillin was successfully treated with erythromycin for pyelonephritis and bacteremia caused by lactobacillus.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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6/7. chorioamnionitis and possible neonatal infection associated with lactobacillus species.

    A patient is described with premature labor at 32 weeks of gestation complicated by chorioamnionitis associated with lactobacillus species, subsequent premature delivery, and possible neonatal infection. Mother and infant did well with antibiotic therapy. The significance of chorioamnionitis and neonatal pneumonia due to this organism group is discussed.
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ranking = 5
keywords = bacillus
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7/7. Amnionitis with intact amniotic membranes involving streptobacillus moniliformis.

    A 23-year-old black woman was admitted to the hospital in premature labor with intact amniotic membranes. The patient was afebrile and did not have any obvious signs of infection. Gram stain of the amniotic fluid, obtained via transabdominal amniocentesis, revealed the presence of gram-negative rods. The bacterium was identified as streptobacillus moniliformis, the agent of rat-bite fever.
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ranking = 5
keywords = bacillus
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