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1/107. bacillus cereus causing fulminant sepsis and hemolysis in two patients with acute leukemia.

    PURPOSE: hemolysis is so rarely associated with bacillus cereus sepsis that only two very well documented cases have been reported. This article reports two unusual cases of bacillus cereus sepsis with massive intravascular hemolysis in patients who had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). patients AND methods: A 20-year-old woman who was 9 weeks pregnant experienced a relapse of ALL. A therapeutic abortion was performed. During week 4 of reinduction the patient had abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, with severe neutropenia but no fever. Her condition deteriorated rapidly with cardiovascular collapse, acute massive intravascular hemolysis, and death within hours of the onset of symptoms. blood cultures were positive for bacillus cereus. Postmortem histologic examination and cultures revealed bacillus cereus and candida albicans in multiple organs. The second patient, a 10-year-old girl, presented with relapsed T-cell ALL. In the second week of reinduction, she had abdominal pain followed by hypotension. Again, no fever was noted. Laboratory studies showed intravascular hemolysis 12 hours after admission. Aggressive support was promptly initiated. Despite disseminated intravascular coagulation; cardiovascular, hepatic, and renal failure; and multiple intracerebral hypodense lesions believed to be infarcts, the patient recovered fully and resumed reinduction therapy. CONCLUSIONS: bacillus cereus infection can have a fulminant clinical course that may be complicated by massive intravascular hemolysis. This pathogen should be suspected in immunosuppressed patients who experience gastrointestinal symptoms and should not be precluded by the absence of fever, especially if steroids such as dexamethasone are being given. Exchange transfusion may be lifesaving in bacillus cereus septicemia associated with massive hemolysis.
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2/107. A staff dialogue on a socially distanced patient: psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and caregivers.

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. The following case of an hiv-positive woman who was diagnosed with cervical cancer during a twin pregnancy was discussed at the May, 1999 Schwartz Center Rounds. The patient was in drug rehabilitation having been dependent on crack cocaine, with a past history of syphilis and gonorrhea. She was single and her other children were in foster care. Initially she was suspicious and non-compliant. A plan was negotiated to biopsy the cervical lesion after cesarean section and with confirmation of malignancy she underwent radical surgery and subsequently radiotherapy. Despite the almost insurmountable social and educational distance between her and her caregivers, they managed to bond and facilitate care. Although there were compromises with which staff were uncomfortable, the relationship was maintained and continues.
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3/107. Tuberculous meningitis in pregnancy--implications for mother and fetus: case report and literature review.

    The objective of this article is to report an illustrative case of tuberculous meningitis in pregnancy and review the recent literature outlining management and outcome of this devastating disease. A medline database search for English and French language articles dating back to 1966 was conducted and supplemented by reviewing the references of key articles and textbooks. An article was included if it described a case of tuberculous meningitis during pregnancy or explained the management of this disease. The search yielded a total of 17 articles, case reports, and reviews relating to tuberculous meningitis and/or pregnancy. Six authors describe cases and outcomes of tuberculous meningitis during pregnancy to give a total of 55 cases. Twenty-one patients died of their disease (38.2%), while 15 fetal or neonatal deaths have been reported (36.6%). Tuberculous meningitis is an insidious disease presenting a diagnostic challenge to even an astute practitioner. When recognized early and treated effectively with modern antituberculous medication, prognosis for mother and child is greatly improved.
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4/107. Does amniotomy influence the prognosis of babies in cases with severe chorioamnionitis? Report of a twin pregnancy with varying outcome.

    We report our experience in a woman with a twin pregnancy. The patient suffered severe escherichia coli chorioamnionitis and the outcomes were different between the two babies after birth. The first baby had only a mild infection, but the second suffered sepsis and subsequent perinatal death. These differences in outcome appeared to be due to amniotomy performed for the first baby after late labor stage I to augment uterus contractions. Removal of infectious amniotic fluid from the amniotic cavity might thus have prevented the spread of the chorioamnionitis. E. coli sometimes causes severe infection during pregnancy and the perinatal period. In this case, a large number of enteropathogenic E. coli (serotype O-6) was cultured from blood, stool, pharyngeal swab, gastric juice and puncture fluid from the thoracic cavity of the second baby. O-6 is classified an enterotoxigenic strain mainly causing diarrhea because of endotoxin released from bacteria. O-6 has not hitherto been reported as a cause of severe infection in chorioamnionitis and perinatal sepsis.
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5/107. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: three autopsy case reports.

    We report three autopsy cases of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in fetuses with a review of literature. The clinical manifestations in these cases of congenital CMV infection include intrauterine fetal death, hydrops fetalis, and CMV pneumonia associated with cardiovascular defect. The pathological characteristics were as follows: 1) the kidney was the most frequently involved organ, followed by lung and liver, 2) CMV inclusions were found predominantly in epithelial cells and to a lesser degree in endothelial cells, 3) intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells were frequently involved, and 4) inflammatory reaction around CMV inclusions was not prominent in the early stage of pregnancy. Diagnostic confirmation was obtained by in situ hybridization (ISH) using a biotinylated CMV-dna probe, which demonstrated intranuclear inclusions and sometimes recognized cells that did not show intranuclear inclusion.
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6/107. fetal death associated with asymptomatic intrauterine candida albicans infection and a retained intrauterine contraceptive device.

    We present a case of intrauterine fetal death at 18 weeks of gestation associated with a retained intrauterine contraceptive device and asymptomatic intraamniotic and fetal infection by candida albicans. The infection was verified by histopathologic examination of the placenta and umbilical cord, growth of C. albicans in samples of amniotic fluid and the presence of high levels of IL-6 in the amniotic fluid.
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7/107. pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in pregnancy.

    OBJECTIVE: To report five new cases of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and to review and analyze the existing reports on the subject. METHOD: Five new cases of PCP during pregnancy are described. The cases, case series, and related articles on the subject in the English language were identified through a comprehensive medline search and reviewed. RESULTS: More than 80% of women with AIDS are of reproductive age, and PCP is the most common cause of AIDS-related death in pregnant women in the united states. Among 22 reviewed cases, the mortality rate was 50% (11 of 22 patients), which is higher than that usually reported for hiv-infected individuals with PCP. Respiratory failure developed in 13 patients (59%), and mechanical ventilation was therefore required, and the survival rate in patients requiring mechanical ventilation was 31%. Maternal and fetal outcomes were better in cases of PCP during the third trimester of the pregnancy. A variety of treatment regimens were used, including sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) alone or in combination with pentamidine, steroids, and eflornithine. The survival rate in patients treated with SXT alone was 71% (5 of 7 patients) and for those treated with SXT and steroids was 60% (3 of 5 patients), with an overall survival rate in both groups of 66.6% (8 of 12 patients). CONCLUSION: PCP has a more aggressive course during pregnancy, with increased morbidity and mortality. Maternal and fetal outcomes remain dismal. Treatment with SXT, compared to other therapies, may result in an improved outcome. Withholding appropriate PCP prophylaxis may adversely affect maternal and fetal outcomes.
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8/107. Abdominal pregnancy complicated by genital and renal tuberculosts and hemolytic anemia.

    After a 10-year period of primary infertility, a patient presented with abdominal pregnancy. Known to have had previously treated genital tuberculosis, on admission she was found to have renal tuberculosis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. After fetal death, laparotomy was performed and the fetus was removed. The patient's anemia responded well to steroid therapy and she was discharged on antituberculous triple therapy. The literature on hemolytic anemia in pregnancy and in association with tuberculosis, as well as on ectopic gestations, was reviewed.
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9/107. A successful caesarean section after death from acute bacterial meningitis.

    A case of post mortem Caesarean Section is presented with a successful outcome. The urgency of the operation to achieve the delivery of a live and healthy baby is stressed. The mother died of Acute bacterial meningitis.
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10/107. Listeria infection during pregnancy: a 10 year experience.

    BACKGROUND: Although listeria monocytogenes is widely distributed in nature, it rarely causes clinical infection in previously healthy people. This microorganism, however, may cause severe invasive disease in pregnant women and newborns. OBJECTIVES: To investigate--in our pregnant population--the impact, severity and outcome of listeriosis on both mother and fetus. METHOD: The study was carried out at a level III, university two-hospital complex. In a retrospective chart review of 65,022 parturients during a 10 year period (1990-1999), we identified and evaluated 11 pregnant patients and their offspring with Listeria infection. RESULTS: chorioamnionitis with multiple placental abscesses were observed in all five placentae examined. Clinically, 4 of 11 parturients had a cesarean section for fetal distress (36.3%), as compared to the 14% mean CS rate in our general population. Two of 11 had a late abortion (18.1%), as compared with the 4% rate in our hospital. Four of 11 had premature labor (36%), which was about four times the rate in our population. Finally, although no intrauterine fetal death was recorded in our series, there was one neonatal death of a term infant (1/11, 9%), which is about 10 times higher than our corrected perinatal mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: If not promptly and adequately treated, listeriosis in pregnancy may present serious hazards to the fetus and newborn through direct infection of the placenta and chorioamnionitis.
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ranking = 2
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