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1/163. Congenital varicella syndrome: cranial MRI in a long-term survivor.

    Congenital varicella syndrome is a rare disorder which follows maternal infection in the first or early second trimester. The syndrome comprises a number of malformations including microcephaly, cortical destruction and limb hypoplasia. We describe a case where there has been long-term survival following second trimester maternal infection. The clinical findings, including the characteristic lower limb hypoplasia, are documented, as are the appearances on cranial MRI indicating an encephaloclastic porencephaly.
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ranking = 1
keywords = varicella
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2/163. prenatal diagnosis of congenital varicella syndrome and detection of varicella-zoster virus in the fetus: a case report.

    Varicella syndrome (VS) specific malformations were sonographically seen at 22 weeks and 3 days of gestation. Fetal infection was demonstrated by detection of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) dna in fetal blood and amniotic fluid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Following therapeutic abortion, fetal infection was confirmed by detection of VZV dna in several fetal tissues and placenta, and by histopathological findings like miliary calcified necroses in fetal organs.
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ranking = 1.9042238737326
keywords = varicella, zoster
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3/163. Immunizations in pregnancy. A public health perspective.

    With the successful implementation of childhood immunization programs in the united states, an increasing percentage of vaccine-preventable infections now occur in adults. By providing primary care services to adult women, midwives are in a unique position to halt the spread of these infections. Immunizations are often avoided in pregnancy and the early post partum period, however, in the mistaken belief that vaccines are harmful to the fetus or neonate. This article, the first in a two-part series on immunizations, reviews the current epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases, discusses the indications and precautions for vaccine usage in pregnancy and the early postpartum period, and presents the current recommendations from the American Committee on Immunization Practices for the most commonly administered adult immunizations: tetanus-diphtheria, hepatitis b, influenza, pneumococcal, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = varicella
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4/163. Sequential peripartum herpes simplex virus type 2 disease in parents and their newborn mimicking intrafamily spread of common viruses.

    herpes simplex type 2 (HSV2) disease developed sequentially among two parents and their newborn. The father first became ill with upper-respiratory symptoms and fever. Then, 5 days later, shortly after delivery, the mother had fever, pharyngitis, and diarrhea. Subsequently, the infant developed undifferentiated febrile illness at the age of 3 days. HSV etiology was recognized by incidental isolation of HSV2 from the newborn naospharynx. The father never developed genital lesions and the mother's symptoms remained nonspecific for several days prior to the onset of genital manifestations. The sequential emergence and manifestations of these infections could have been misconstrued for an intrafamily spread of respiratory or enteric viruses. This cluster illustrates that HSV2 may cause sequential symptomatic disease in susceptible individuals mimicking other viruses.
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ranking = 0.15547821468848
keywords = herpes
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5/163. herpes simplex hepatitis in pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature.

    Fulminant hepatic dysfunction in the third trimester of pregnancy accompanied by fever may result from disseminated herpes simplex virus. Since 1969, 24 cases of herpes simplex hepatitis, including the current case, have been reported. Mucocutaneous lesions are present in only half of cases; therefore, suspicion for diagnosis of this disease is low. Twenty-five percent of cases were not diagnosed until autopsy. Maternal and perinatal mortality are high, approaching 39 percent for both mother and fetus. Early recognition with initiation of antiviral therapy appears to be most important in maximizing survival.
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ranking = 0.077739107344238
keywords = herpes
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6/163. Successful treatment of generalized primary herpes simplex type 2 infection during pregnancy.

    Generalized herpes simplex virus infections constitute a severe threat to mother and child during pregnancy. Before antiviral treatments were available, both mother and foetus had a high mortality rate. The following case illustrates a successful outcome after long-term antiviral treatment. It is of great importance to suspect, diagnose and treat patients with HSV 2 early, especially during pregnancy.
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ranking = 0.1943477683606
keywords = herpes
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7/163. herpes simplex virus encephalitis in pregnancy.

    BACKGROUND: Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can detect herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), HSV encephalitis remains a significant cause of neurologic impairment in pregnant women. Assessment of fetal contamination also remains a problem. CASES: We report two cases in which HSV encephalitis initially was not suspected and led to significant maternal neurologic impairment. In both cases, HSV PCR of CSF confirmed the diagnosis. In one case, fetal serum HSV PCR excluded fetal contamination. CONCLUSION: As soon as encephalitis in pregnancy is suspected, a combination of acyclovir and penicillin is recommended because the potential benefits far outweigh the risks. Using the HSV PCR, HSV infection in the fetus can be diagnosed.
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ranking = 0.23000348276565
keywords = herpes, encephalitis
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8/163. Transmission of varicella to a gravida via close contacts immunized with varicella-zoster vaccine. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Varicella-zoster is a highly contagious dna virus, transmitted by direct contact and respiratory droplets. An attenuated live-virus vaccine has recently become available and is of value for susceptible, nonimmunized people. As with other attenuated vaccines, such as measles, mumps and rubella virus, there is no evidence of transmission by those immunized, and it is generally recognized that these vaccines can be given to the close contacts of pregnant women. CASE: A 32-year-old woman at 39 weeks of gestation presented with generalized pruritic vesicles and pustules. Diagnosis of primary varicella infection was made and confirmed by serologic studies. The patient denied recent or past exposure. The only significant history that the patient could recall was her exposure to her two children, who were vaccinated with the varicella-zoster vaccine eight days prior to her admission but were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a pregnant woman contracting the primary varicella infection from exposure to close contacts vaccinated with the varicella vaccine. It may not be as safe as previously thought for seronegative gravidas to be in close contact with people vaccinated with the varicella vaccine.
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ranking = 2.7250686484791
keywords = varicella, zoster
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9/163. Neonatal herpes simplex virus type II.

    This description of a tragic case of infection with neonatal herpes simplex virus type II is presented to alert professional nurses to the fact that this disease is sometimes difficult to recognize, but must be considered when a newborn has any unusual symptoms. Neonatal herpes simplex type II may have a slow and insidious onset, and be masked by many other symptoms. Even though the virus might be present in a newborn, the symptoms might not be apparent until several days after birth; this is a problem because infants are now leaving hospitals much earlier and can become ill after hospital discharge. parents, especially first-time parents, may not recognize subtle signs of illness in their child. Therefore, the onus is on the health care provider to evaluate each infant for symptomatology and provide education to parents along with instructions to obtain early follow-up care for all newborns.
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ranking = 0.23321732203271
keywords = herpes
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10/163. Maternal intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection leading to persistent fetal vasculature.

    herpes simplex virus can cause serious ocular and systemic disease in the neonate. The mode of transmission to the neonate is usually from the maternal birth canal to the fetus intrapartum; but much more rarely, hematogenous transplacental infection can affect the developing fetus months prior to birth. Persistent fetal vasculature occurs when there is persistence of the fetal ocular vasculature, which normally regresses prior to birth. To our knowledge, we report the first case of serologically proven intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection associated with bilateral persistent fetal vasculature in a surviving term infant. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118:837-840
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ranking = 0.1943477683606
keywords = herpes
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