Cases reported "Pregnancy Complications"

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11/143. Recurrent ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome in multiple pregnancies and its treatment with metyrapone.

    A 17-year-old primigravid woman presented with Cushing's syndrome. Typical clinical symptoms and signs developed at the beginning of pregnancy. By week 17 of gestation, plasma cortisol diurnal rhythm was absent and there was a paradoxical increase in plasma cortisol after a 1-mg dexamethasone overnight suppression test. Basal urinary free cortisol was 10 times above the upper limit (in pregnancy) and ACTH levels were suppressed. The diagnosis of ACTH--independent Cushing's syndrome was established. MRI scans revealed normal adrenal and pituitary glands. To control hypercortisolism, the patient was treated with metyrapone. At 34 weeks of gestation, the patient developed preeclampsia and underwent caesarean section. A female infant weighing 1070 g was delivered. No apparent metyrapone-induced teratogenic effects were observed. Cushing's syndrome in the patient resolved within three weeks of delivery. No corticosteroid replacement therapy either for child or mother was needed. Eight months after delivery the patient became pregnant again and rapidly developed Cushing's syndrome with typical clinical symptoms and signs and laboratory results (urinary free cortisol 6464 nmol/24 h). This second pregnancy was unwanted and terminated by artificial abortion that was followed by rapid resolution of hypercortisolism. A third pregnancy, 12 months after delivery was also accompanied by the rapid development of hypercortisolism which recovered after artificial termination. The mechanisms by which pregnancy-induced Cushing's syndrome occurred in this patient are unclear. Aberrant responsiveness or hyperresponsiveness of adrenocortical cells to a non-ACTH and non-CRH substance produced in excess in pregnancy should be considered. metyrapone suppression of hypercortisolism currently represents the best treatment for these rare cases.
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12/143. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy associated with short-chain acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency.

    There is a correlation between pregnancy complications such as acute fatty liver of pregnancy and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency. We diagnosed another fatty acid beta-oxidation defect, short-chain acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency, in an infant when evaluating him because his mother had acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Other beta-oxidation defects, in addition to LCHAD deficiency, should be considered in children born after pregnancies complicated by liver disease.
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ranking = 0.14612315813848
keywords = enzyme
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13/143. caffeine-induced hypokalemic paralysis in pregnancy.

    BACKGROUND: Excessive ingestion of caffeine can induce hypokalemia, which affects the neuromuscular system and can lead to paralysis. CASE: A 24-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 2-0-0-2 at 33 weeks' gestation presented with muscular paralysis and hypokalemia secondary to drinking 6 to 7 L of cola per day with little other oral intake. After potassium replacement and stopping caffeine ingestion, the symptoms resolved quickly. CONCLUSION: The physiologic changes of pregnancy might potentiate the effect of caffeine on serum potassium concentration.
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ranking = 0.03898652559239
keywords = replacement
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14/143. Late occurrence of diffuse cerebral swelling after intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient with the hellp syndrome--Case report.

    hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome can occur at any time in the course of pregnancy and is associated with many complications including fatal stroke. A 37-year-old female presented with hellp syndrome causing an intracerebral hematoma, which was treated by evacuation and mild hypothermia. Unexpected diffuse cerebral swelling occurred on the 15th day of the initially favorable postoperative course. Considerable impairment of consciousness persisted despite conservative therapy. Serial computed tomographic findings indicated delayed cerebral vasospasm as the cause of the swelling. Particularly careful management is required even beyond the first 2 weeks for patients with stroke as a complication of hellp syndrome.
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ranking = 0.024353859689747
keywords = enzyme
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15/143. Massive intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in pregnancy complicated by guillain-barre syndrome.

    A pregnant woman developed acute demyelinating poly-neuropathy (guillain-barre syndrome (GBS)) in the 28th week of gestation (GW) after flu-like infection. hypertension, liver dysfunction, and a decrease in consciousness level developed at 29GW. blood chemical analysis revealed increased levels of liver enzymes GOT 247 IU/l and GPT 624 IU/l. Viral serological study showed a positive test for Epstein-Barr virus IgM. Weakness of bilateral facial muscles and limbs, a loss of tendon reflexes, and generalized paresthesia were detected by neurologic examinations. Over the course of 5 days, a massive dose (100g) of intravenous immunoglobulin (MIVIg) was infused in 30GW. An average manual muscle testing score by the Medical research Council method and peak flow value began to be significantly restored during and after MIVIg infusions. Values of the liver enzymes gradually decreased, and improvement of the muscle weakness and dysbasia was observed. Her pregnancy normally ended in spontaneous vaginal delivery of a healthy infant in 37GW. This is the first report confirming the efficacy of MIVIg, without plasmapheresis, in GBS-complicated pregnancy.
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ranking = 0.048707719379493
keywords = enzyme
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16/143. Fatal fetal outcome with the combined use of valsartan and atenolol.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of anhydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, very small placenta, and fetal death in a pregnancy complicated by chronic hypertension and diabetes mellitus that had been treated through the first 24 weeks of gestation with valsartan and atenolol. CASE SUMMARY: A 40-year-old Hispanic woman with well-controlled chronic hypertension and diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus was treated with valsartan and atenolol until pregnancy was diagnosed at 24 weeks' gestation. An ultrasound examination revealed normal fetal growth and anatomy but anhydramnios (amniotic fluid index 0). Valsartan was discontinued, and amniotic fluid volume normalized within two weeks. Intrauterine fetal death was documented at 33 weeks' gestation. Labor was induced, with the delivery of a stillbom female fetus with small, hypoplastic lungs (weight 41% of expected) and an extremely small, 148-g placenta (weight 48% of the 10th percentile for gestational age). DISCUSSION: The use of valsartan, a selective angiotensin ii receptor antagonist (ARA), in human pregnancy has not been reported, but this class of agents would be expected to cause fetal toxicity similar to that observed with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. This toxicity includes reduced perfusion of the fetal kidneys, resulting in anuria, oligohydramnios, and subsequent pulmonary hypoplasia. The small hypoplastic lungs and very small placenta were probably a consequence of valsartan and atenolol combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Resolution of anhydramnios after discontinuing valsartan is evidence for ARA-induced fetal toxicity. The pulmonary hypoplasia observed in the stillbom infant was a direct result of the severe oligohydramnios. The cause of fetal death nine weeks later is uncertain, but because the woman's chronic hypertension and diabetes were well controlled, we believe the primary cause was chronic placental insufficiency resulting from the previous combination of valsartan and atenolol.
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keywords = enzyme
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17/143. Severe folate deficiency masquerading as the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets.

    BACKGROUND: Although folate deficiency is common in pregnancy, progression to megaloblastosis is not. Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy due to folate deficiency may mimic the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP). CASES: Two women presented in the second trimester with abdominal pain and severe thrombocytopenia. These symptoms were misinterpreted in the first woman as the hellp syndrome, leading to an emergency cesarean delivery. Subsequent investigation revealed folate deficiency; treatment resulted in rapid normalization of all abnormalities. In the second woman, folate deficiency was diagnosed antenatally. Treatment allowed continuation of the pregnancy to term. CONCLUSION: The serious complications of folate deficiency make a strong case for supplementation in pregnancy. Careful scrutiny of clinical and laboratory findings may help discriminate the hellp syndrome from its mimics, avoiding preterm delivery.
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ranking = 0.12176929844873
keywords = enzyme
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18/143. Visual failure from pituitary and parasellar tumours occurring with favourable outcome in pregnant women.

    Very few cases have been reported of a successful outcome after relief by operation of severe visual failure from a pituitary or other parasellar tumour during the late stages of pregnancy. Two such cases are recorded here together with the obstetric features and follow-up studies of more than three years. Usually the deterioration of vi sion occurs in the latter half of the pregnancy and recovers rapidly after delivery, whether the onset of labour has occurred spontaneously or after induction. In subsequent pregnancies vision deteriorates at an earlier stage and becomes even more marked. Some cases are now occurring even in pregnancies induced by modern fertility drugs. The treatment of choice whenever vision is seriously threatened at any stage of pregnancy is a surgical attack on the pituitary, followed by suitable replacement therapy to ensure that the pregnancy continues.
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keywords = replacement therapy, replacement
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19/143. Successful pregnancy outcome in a patient with Gaucher's disease and antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Gaucher's disease is characterized by increased incidence of several autoantibodies, but autoimmune phenomena are rare in Gaucher patients. We report the first occurrence of Gaucher's disease and antiphospholipid syndrome in the same patient. A 27-year-old woman with hepatosplenomegaly and thrombocytopenia who was diagnosed as having Gaucher's disease with the genotype 1226G/1226G developed Coombs'-positive hemolytic anemia, recurrent abortions, and a high titer of IgG and IgM anticardiolipin antibodies constituting the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. A successful pregnancy outcome was achieved by combined therapy with aspirin, low-molecular-weight heparin, prednisone, and enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase. The possible pathogenicity of antiphospholipid antibodies found in the sera of many asymptomatic Gaucher patients should be further clarified.
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ranking = 53.108246989982
keywords = enzyme replacement therapy, enzyme replacement, replacement therapy, replacement, enzyme
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20/143. hyperemesis gravidarum complicated by Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    BACKGROUND: Wernicke's encephalopathy is usually associated with alcohol abuse, but can also occur with hyperemesis gravidarum. The effect of delay in thiamine replacement on fetal outcomes is unknown. We present a case of this complication.CASE: A primipara with hyperemesis was admitted for mental status changes in her 14th week of pregnancy. physical examination revealed a lethargic patient with ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and hyporeflexia. Parenteral thiamine therapy was started. The patient improved rapidly although the ataxia persisted. A spontaneous abortion occurred 2 weeks later.CONCLUSION: Wernicke's encephalopathy can complicate hyperemesis gravidarum. Early thiamine replacement may decrease the chances of spontaneous abortion.
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ranking = 0.077973051184781
keywords = replacement
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