Cases reported "Pregnancy Complications"

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1/46. Hyperreactio luteinalis associated with chronic renal failure.

    Hyperreactio luteinalis is a rare benign condition characterized by bilateral ovarian enlargement associated with pregnancies where high concentrations of maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophins are present. This condition may mimic the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. We report a case of a 34 year old woman with a history of chronic renal failure on haemodialysis who presented at 10 weeks' gestational age with hyperreactio luteinalis which was treated conservatively. Because of chronic renal failure, the presentation and course of the disease was different from that which has been previously reported.
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2/46. Hyperreactio luteinalis despite the absence of a corpus luteum and suppressed serum follicle stimulating concentrations in a triplet pregnancy.

    Hyperreactio luteinalis is characterized by moderate to marked cystic enlargement of the ovaries related to multiple theca lutein cysts and is associated with very high sex steroid concentrations. It is a rare condition especially in the first trimester. The case described below is believed to be the only case of hyperreactio luteinalis reported following frozen embryo transfer. This case provides an opportunity to gain further insight into the mechanism responsible for this unusual condition. The 30 year old woman demonstrated a slightly elevated LH/FSH ratio (5 and 3 mIU/ml respectively) and normal baseline androgen concentrations. Two years following oocyte retrieval she had a second frozen embryo transfer. The ovaries were normal size when the embryos were transferred and androgens were still normal. The ovaries did not begin to enlarge until 51 days from transfer. A dichorionic intrauterine pregnancy with monozygotic twins in the left gestational sac was seen. Eventually, 86 days from transfer, the ovaries enlarged to 145x103x116 mm right; and 83x95x117 mm left. serum oestradiol was 30 078 pg/ml, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) 239 920 mIU/ml, serum progesterone >160 ng/ml, total testosterone 2254 ng/dl, free testosterone 42.3 pg/ml and androstenedione 7328 ng/dl. Throughout the first trimester, serum FSH was <1 mIU/ml. Thus, neither FSH nor a corpus luteum is necessary to initiate this syndrome.
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3/46. Markedly elevated beta-hCG levels in a normal singleton gestation with hyperreactio luteinalis.

    BACKGROUND: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is produced by the trophoblast early in pregnancy and peaks at a level of approximately 100,000 IU/liter around the ninth week of gestation. Abnormally high levels are usually noted in association with multiple gestation, molar gestation, and specific ovarian or gestational malignancies. CASES: A multiparous patient in the second trimester was referred for evaluation after a maternal triple marker screen was incalculable due to a beta-hCG level of 2.1 million IU/L. Targeted sonography revealed bilateral complex adnexal masses with a solid component of the left ovary, a normal fetus, and normal placenta. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy at 18 weeks' gestational age. A left oophorectomy was performed. pathology confirmed hyperreactio luteinalis. The remainder of the pregnancy was remarkable for preterm labor and delivery at 35 weeks' gestational age. At delivery, the hCG level was noted to be 24,210 IU/L, and the fetus and placenta were normal. CONCLUSION: Markedly elevated hCG levels rarely occur in normal singleton pregnancy and can be associated with hyperreactio luteinalis. When noted, a work-up to evaluate possible malignancy, molar gestation, and multiple gestation should be pursued.
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4/46. Hyperreactio luteinalis associated with severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monochorionic twin pregnancies, with high perinatal loss and significant morbidity. The etiology of this syndrome remains unclear. Hyperreactio luteinalis is a rare benign condition characterized by maternal ovarian enlargement due to theca lutein cysts. We present 4 cases of hyperreactio luteinalis associated with severe TTTS. We detected maternal ovarian enlargement by prenatal ultrasonography in 2 cases, at the cesarean section in 1 case, and postpartum in 1 case. Three cases showed hydrops fetalis and all cases showed congestive cardiac failure. Serial amnioreduction was performed in all cases, and regression of hydrops fetalis and maternal ovarian enlargement occurred in 1 case. These cases suggest that the pathophysiology of TTTS is closely related to the etiology of hyperreactio luteinalis.
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5/46. Delayed lactogenesis II secondary to gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts in two normal singleton pregnancies.

    Hyperreactio luteinalis is an unusual condition in which, during pregnancy, both ovaries are enlarged by multiple theca lutein cysts that produce a high level of testosterone. Several weeks postpartum, the cysts resolve and testosterone level returns to normal. Two case studies are presented in which mothers with gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts experienced delayed lactogenesis II. The elevated testosterone at the time of birth suppressed milk production. Once the testosterone level dropped to approximately 300 ng/dL, milk production began. After the initial delay, both mothers breastfed their infants without supplementation.
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6/46. Hyperreactio luteinalis in a woman with high-risk factors. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Hyperreactio luteinalis is a rare condition characterized by multicystic and bilateral ovarian enlargement associated with high maternal human chorionic gonadotropin serum levels. CASE: A case of spontaneous twin pregnancy, polycystic kidney and thyrotoxicosis was treated conservatively. CONCLUSION: In this case, hyperreactio luteinalis was associated with twin pregnancy in a woman with preexisting renal failure. The association of other endocrinopathies, such as hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus, creates a clinical problem that could be quite hazardous in pregnancy if this association is not detected.
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7/46. Recurrent maternal virilization during pregnancy caused by benign androgen-producing ovarian lesions.

    Benign causes of maternal virilization in pregnancy, such as luteoma of pregnancy and hyperreactio luteinalis, are generally believed to resolve completely post partum and not to recur. We present the fifth case in the literature of recurrent maternal virilization in pregnancy. These lesions should be viewed as potentially recurrent and cases should be managed accordingly.
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8/46. Comparison between spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and hyperreactio luteinalis.

    CASE REPORT: We present here two patients with bilateral ovarian enlargement during the first trimester of pregnancy. We clinically diagnosed one case as spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and the other case as hyperreactio luteinalis. CONCLUSION: It may be difficult to discriminate severe hyperreactio luteinalis in the first trimester from spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation.
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9/46. Clinical cure of severe, early onset preeclampsia with low molecular weight heparin therapy in primigravida with hyperreactio luteinalis and thrombophilia.

    Inherited thrombophilias, suggested to be risk factors for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and known to be associated with venous thromboembolism during pregnancy, may also increase the risk for preeclampsia (PE). We describe the case of a 29-year-old woman with primary infertility with no history of thrombosis, hypertension or renal disorders. In her first pregnancy, achieved by frozen embryo transfer, she developed severe early-onset (23rd gestational week) PE with heavy proteinuria, and at the same time was found to have enlarged ovaries with hyperreactio luteinalis. After admission we found that she was a heterozygotic carrier of the factor v Leiden mutation. After administering low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) therapy, her blood pressure normalized, proteinuria diminished and her d-dimer values returned to that of a normal pregnant level. The fetus grew normally. Her ovaries normalized during the pregnancy, as determined by ultrasound examinations. At term she delivered spontaneously a normal weight, healthy girl. Previously, only prophylactic LMWH, in subsequent pregnancy, have been administered in patients with thrombophilia and a history of severe PE. We describe a case of spontaneous hyperreactio luteinalis, where the clinical characteristics of PE improved after beginning LMWH therapy in severe, very early onset PE. Inherited thrombophilia, spontaneous hyperreactio luteinalis and PE may be associated phenomena.
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10/46. Delayed lactogenesis II: a comparison of four cases.

    Lactogenesis II is the onset of copious milk production (i.e., the milk "coming in"), which usually occurs between 30 to 40 hours postpartum. When lactogenesis II fails to occur or is delayed, it may be due to a number of underlying hormonal or non-hormonal conditions. Of the various hormonal etiologies, many can be identified with the aid of a few standard blood tests. Gestational ovarian theca lutein cysts may cause delayed lactogenesis II and are fairly easily detected by ordering testosterone levels. Although this condition can delay lactogenesis II for as long as 31 days, with proper management women affected by these cysts have established breastfeeding. Three of the four women reviewed in this article were eventually able to produce 100% of their infants' caloric requirements.
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