Cases reported "Pregnancy in Diabetics"

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1/166. Aphallia as part of urorectal septum malformation sequence in an infant of a diabetic mother.

    A male patient with aphallia, anal stenosis, tetralogy of fallot, multiple vertebral anomalies including sacral agenesis and central nervous system (CNS) malformations was born after a pregnancy complicated by poorly controlled maternal diabetes. Aphallia is an extremely rare abnormality and can be part of the urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSMS). While aphallia has not been reported in infants of diabetic mothers, urogenital malformations are known to occur with increased frequency. Two female products of pregnancies complicated by diabetes presented with multiple malformations including anal atresia and recto-vaginal fistula consistent with the diagnosis of URSMS. The three patients share CNS, cardiac, and vertebral anomalies, abnormalities secondary to abnormal blastogenesis and characteristic of diabetic embryopathy. URSMS is also caused by abnormal blastogenesis. Therefore, this particular malformation should be viewed in the context of the multiple blastogenetic abnormalities in the cases reported here. The overlap of findings of URSMS in our cases with other abnormalities of blastogenesis, such as VATER association or sacral agenesis is not surprising, as these associations are known to lack clear diagnostic boundaries.
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2/166. The management of hypertension in a diabetic pregnancy.

    pregnancy in a woman with Type 1 diabetes poses several clinical challenges. In addition to meticulous glycaemic control, careful attention must be paid to the management of developing and pre-existing diabetic complications which may progress in severity during pregnancy. pregnancy-induced hypertension is more common in women with diabetes and especially in those with diabetes of long duration. Diabetic renal disease is associated with hypertension which often deteriorates during pregnancy. The management of hypertension is difficult because of limited therapeutic options and the need to consider the implications for the developing fetus as well as the mother. This case report details the clinical management of a young woman with Type 1 diabetes whose pregnancy was complicated by the development of hypertension.
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3/166. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with systemic sclerosis.

    We describe the management of a diabetic primigravid woman with systemic sclerosis and thrombocytopaenia who required Caesarean section for pre-eclampsia. This was performed successfully under spinal anaesthesia.
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4/166. The effect of maternal hypothermia on the fetal heart rate.

    Fetal bradycardia is a recognized response to maternal hypothermia but has not previously been reported in conjunction with diabetes. A 30-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic was admitted at 35 weeks gestation for control of her diabetes. She developed maternal hypothermia and hypoglycemia and the fetal heart rate fell to 100 beats per minute (b.p.m.). However, the fetal heart rate gradually returned to normal after rewarming the patient.
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5/166. Adrenal vein thromboses in an infant of diabetic mother.

    Maternal diabetes is common condition complicating pregnancy and may have serious consequences for the offspring. We report on an infant of a mother with multisubstance abuse and poorly controlled type I diabetes with complications that include multifocal fetal myocardial infarcts, macrosomia, hypoxic encephalopathy and islet cell hyperplasia, and bilateral adrenal vein thromboses with necrosis, a relatively rare complication of maternal diabetes.
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6/166. Are conventional targets for metabolic control sufficient to prevent fetal macrosomia during diabetic pregnancy?

    We report the case of a 26 year-old woman, with an uncomplicated type 1 IDDM of 17 yr duration followed for her first pregnancy. At conception, HbA1c (measured by HPLC) was 6.5% and fructosamine was 280 u.mol.l (normal range below 285). During the follow-up, 15-days-interval frutosamine never exceeded the normal range and HbA1c values were under 6.5% excepted in the third trimester (7.0 /- 0.8%) coinciding with a bad control of the 2 hours post-prandial blood glucose. A fetal macrosomy was discovered at 34 weeks of gestation and a heavy-for-date 4680 g baby was delivered by caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Our case report outlines again the need to achieve the recommended target of metabolic control for the diabetic pregnant woman (blood preprandial glucose: 3.9-5.6 mM; post-prandial 2 h < 6.7 mM) specially during the third trimester of pregnancy. The use of computer databases might be helpful for precise monitoring during this narrow window period.
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7/166. Transient right sided hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an infant born to a diabetic mother.

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a rare primary myocardial disease, characterized by hypertrophy of the left and/or right ventricle. Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) are at risk for development of HCM, respiratory distress and persistent pulmonary hypertension. A case of severe right sided HCM in an infant born to a diabetic mother is presented. The patient's findings were complementary to the previous observations reporting HCM in IDM. The presence of disproportionate septal hypertrophy in the echocardiography of an infant born to a diabetic mother is highly suggestive of HCM in IDM. In our opinion, further cardiac evaluation is not indicated unless other cardiac abnormalities are suspected.
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8/166. Occurrence of an aortic arch anomaly in two siblings born to a diabetic mother.

    A patient with interruption of aortic arch type A, born to a diabetic mother, is described. The patient, a male infant, was the fourth child of a 29-year-old mother, and had a sibling with coarctation of the aorta. The mother had been treated for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus for the previous 10 years. The infant died on the 3rd day of life after symptoms of cardiogenic shock. To our knowledge, interruption of aortic arch type A has not been previously described in infants of diabetic mothers. The relevance of the case is discussed and the literature reviewed.
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9/166. Unilateral bowing of long bones and multiple congenital anomalies in a child born to a mother with gestational diabetes.

    We report on a new-born girl with multiple congenital anomalies consisting of major skeletal anomalies restricted to the left side, cleft palate, ventricular and atrial septal defect, retromicrognathia, short neck, dysplastic low-set ears and large birth weight. The left-side bony anomalies include shortening and bowing of the femur and tibia, hypoplasia of the fibula, hip dislocation, clubfoot and mild shortening of the long tubular bones in the left arm with elbow dislocation. The pregnancy was complicated by insulin-dependent gestational diabetes mellitus in the mother. The radiographic features were not consistent with the diagnosis of campomelic dysplasia, kyphomelic dysplasia or other skeletal dysplasias characterized by bowing and shortening of the long bones. To our knowledge, the multiple congenital anomalies, including major skeletal malformations, present in our case have never been simultaneously reported until now. A maternal diabetes syndrome in this infant is probable. The occurrence of major congenital malformations in offspring of women with gestational diabetes is reviewed and discussed. We provide evidence that gestational diabetes mellitus could be teratogenic. We recommend a careful diabetic control in every woman with a history of gestational diabetes.
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10/166. Reversal of foetal hydrops and foetal tachyarrhythmia associated with maternal diabetic coma.

    Foetal hydrops is always a challenge for the clinician. We report a case of tachycardia associated with hydrops and hydramnios in a pregnancy complicated with diabetic coma at 28 weeks gestation. Normal foetal heart rate was recorded immediately after correction of maternal acidotic status and hydrops eventually disappeared. The woman was delivered at 32 weeks and the baby had an uncomplicated postnatal course. We hypothesise that maternal ketoacidosis has been the precipitating factor of tachycardia and congestive heart failure and that this case is conceptually similar to the "late death" phenomenon, reported in cases of poorly controlled maternal diabetes.
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